Pre-reading activities • New words • Expressions and patterns • Language points • Text analysis • After-reading Activities • Exercise(Translation)
Pre-reading Activities —Idioms of Name Idioms of Name Read the following sentences. What are the Chinese meanings for them?
1. They call each other all sorts of names. 他们用各种恶言恶语互骂。 2. He was a chairman only in name. 他是个名义上的主席。
3. His name is mud. 他声名狼藉。 4. Thomas Edison was a great name in science. 托玛斯·爱迪生是个科学伟人。
5. In fishing, patience is the name of the game. 钓鱼时，耐心是最重要的。 6. He doesn’t have a penny to his name. 他一文不名。
New words: application : n.1. [C, U] 申请 我对四份不同的工作寄出了求职信。 • I've sent off applications for four different jobs. 2. [C, U] 应用；使用；运用 这理论不适用于这个情况。 • The theory has no application in this case.
apply • apply for • apply to • application • applicant
substitute: vt.use sth. new or different instead of sth. else 代替；替换 我们得用新椅子代替这把破椅子。 We must substitute a new chair for the broken one. 在这种烹饪法里蜂蜜能代替糖。 Honey can be substituted for sugar in this recipe.
n.[C] a person or thing that replaces sb. or sth. else 代替者；替代物 经理不能出席，但派了他的秘书代替他出席。 The manager was unable to attend but sent his secretary as a substitute. 老师生病了，因此今天由一位代课老师来上课。 The teacher's ill, so a substitute is teaching today.
reserve n.1. [U] 克制，拘谨 他是一个很克制的人，甚至他最亲密的朋友都难以真正理解他。 He was a man of such reserve that not even his closest friends really understood him. 2. [C] (usu. pl.) 储备物 黄金储备 the gold reserve 我储备了些粮食，以防万一。 I have a reserve of food in case of emergency.
vt.1. 保留；储备 留点力气爬山吧。 Reserve your strength for the climb. 2. 预定 我打电话给旅馆，预定一间双人房，为期一周。 I rang the hotel to reserve a double room for a week.
convey 表达（思想，感情） 他的音乐表达出一种乐观情绪。 • His music conveys a sense of optimism • 这张图片想向观众表达什么？ What does the picture convey to its audience?
latter： a （两者中）后者的 previous a 前者 在火腿和牛肉两者之间，我更喜欢后者。 • Of ham and beef, I like the latter meat better. n. （两者中的）后者 许多人支持前面那个计划，但我个人赞同后者。 • Many support the former plan, but personally I'm for the latter.
qualify（使）有资格；取得资格 我要到明年才够格。 • I won't qualify until next year. 作为一个单身父 (母) 亲，你有权获得额外的福利金。 • Being a single parent qualifies you for extra benefits.
refine vt.1. 使变得文雅 使某人的语言更为文雅 • refine one's language 2. 提炼；精炼 • refining processes 精炼过程 燃油是经过工业提炼的。 • Oil is industrially refined.
confess v.1承认 恐怕有件事我得告诉你──我打破了你的花瓶。 • I'm afraid that I've got something to confess: I've broken your vase.
2. 供认；招供 最后她终于向警方认罪。 • Eventually she confessed to the police. 经过数小时的审问，他全部招供了 • After hours of interrogation, he confessed everything.
Expressions 1.fill out • substitute…for • If only 4. for better or worse 5. attach sth. to sth. 6. even so 7. turn down 8. come up to 9. press for 10. be ill at ease 11. be free from 12. be guilty of 13. take charge of 14. stick with sth.
Patterns 1. as…so 表示类比 2. feel like sth./doing sth.… 3.If I were…, sb./sth. would have done 4. Though most of us…we’re all… to some extent.
Expressions & Patterns—Expressions • 填申请表 fill out an application form (L.4) You try • 他已经记不得填了多少求职申请了。 He could not remember how many job applications he had filled out.
取代，代替 substitute for （L.5) You try • 因为那位老师仍然住院，我们只好让刘先生代课。 We have to substitute Mr. Liu for the teacher who was still in hospital.
就算...都行；哪怕...也好if only 给她打电话吧，哪怕就告诉她你感到很抱歉也好啊。 • Just call her, if only to say that you are sorry. You try
不管结果好坏，结果如何 for better or worse (L.20) You try • 这对夫妇发誓他们不管如何都要在一起。 The couple swore that they would be together for better or worse. 木已成舟，好也罢，坏也罢，我们现在已无法改变。 It's been done, and for better or worse, we can't change it now.
使与······相关联 attach sth. to sth. (L.24) You try • 总统认为家庭生活很重要。 The president attached great importance to family life.
虽然这样，然而，不过 even so (L.28) 虽然有很多拼写错误，但这仍不失为一篇相当不错的文章。 There are many spelling mistakes; even so it's quite a good essay. You try • 他非常累，即使如此，他还得继续干活。 • He was very tired, even so, he still continued his work.
拒绝，驳回 turn down (L.34) You try • 他要珍妮嫁给他，但是遭到了拒绝。 He asked Jenny to marry him but she turned him down.
come up to • 走近，移近 come up to (L.35) You try • 这个学生走到教室前面，开始在黑板上写字。 The student came up to the front of the classroom and began to write on the blackboard.
反复请求，紧急请求 press for (L.35) You try • 由于公众一再坚持调查这一问题，政府终于采取了一些措施。 The government finally took some action because the public had been pressing for inquiry into the question.
不自在，困窘 be ill at ease (L.37) You try • 她跟陌生人在一起很不自在。 She was ill at ease with strangers.
不惧······的，未受危险伤害的 be free from (L.38) You try • 他过着无忧的生活。 He leads a life free from anxiety.
对······有罪责 be guilty of (L.39) You try • 山姆被认定犯有谋杀罪。 Sam was proved to be guilty of murder.
负责管理，对······负责 take charge of (L.42) You try • 约翰生太太现在负责管理我们班。 Mrs. Johnson is taking charge of our class at present.
坚持，无法摆脱 stick with sth. (L.58) You try • 生活中只有少部分人能够坚持自己的理想。 Only a few could stick with an ideal in reality.
Expressions & Patterns—Patterns • As the desert is like a sea, so is the camel like a ship. 沙漠似海，骆驼似舟。 1. as…so 表示类比 As His Name Is, So Is He! (Title)
Translation • 有其师必有其徒。 so is the pupil As is the teacher, _____________. • 随着时间的推移，他们的希望开始变得越来越渺茫了。 Astime went on _______________, so their hopes began to decrease. • 你怎样对我，我也将怎样对待你。 As you treat me, so I shall treat you.
I don’t feel like a president. 我不想当主席。 I don’t feel like taking a holiday now. 我现在不想去度假。 2. feel like sth./doing sth. … I just don’tfeel like a Debbie. (L.3)
Translation • 不知道为什么，他突然想哭。 • 你想来杯咖啡吗？ Do you feel like _________ _____________? (having) a cup of coffee He didn’t know why but he suddenly felt like crying.
Translation • …if I were a more refined Arthur or Adrian, the name would have appeared complete. (L.29) • If I were him, I would have fought with that vicious man. 3.If I were…, sb./sth. would have done 如果是我的话，我会跟他道歉的。 • If ___________, I __________ apologized to him. I were you wouldhave 如果我稍微明智点, 我应该能料到这次尝试会失败。 If I were any wiser, I would have expected the failure of this attempt.
Translation • Though most of us would like to think ourselves free from such prejudiced notions, we’re all guilty of name stereotyping to some extent. (L.38) 4. Though most of us…, we’re all…to some extent. 虽然我们大多数人都不愿承认，我们对此事都在某种程度上负有责任。 areallresponsiblefor Though most of usdeny it, we ____________________ __________________. thistosomeextent 虽然我们大多数人看上去很高兴，其实大家在某种程度上都有些失望。 Though most of us seemed happy, we were all disappointed to some extent.
Language points: • As His Name Is, So Is He! (Title) • Meaning: A man's name suggests something about his nature or manner.
For better or worse..." (Para. 3) • Meaning: Whether the result is good or bad... Note that this expression has become widely known because it appears in the marriage service: "... for richer or poorer, in sickness and in health, for better or worse, till death do us part".（......无论贫穷还是富有，疾病还是健康，相爱相敬，不离不弃。）
I suspect that if I were a more refined Arthur or Adrian, the name would have appeared complete. (Para. 4) • Meaning: I think that if my name were Arthur or Adrian, which suggests that a person with the name is well-educated and polite, my full name would have been printed in my by-line.
arrangement to meet made between a man and a woman who have not met each other before blind date Janet has arranged for me to go on a blind date this Saturday with a man that she knows through work. 本周六珍妮特安排我与一位她在工作中认识的男子见面。 Now you try: 他和妻子是经人介绍认识的。 He met his wife in a blind date.
Though most of us would like to think ourselves free from such prejudiced notions, we're all guilty of name stereotyping to some extent. (Para. 6) Meaning: Though most of us would like to think that we don't have such prejudiced notions, to some degree, all of us are wrong having too-simple ideas or images about people and attaching to them the qualities suggested by their names.
v.对······形成固定看法 stereotype n.固定的形象，陈规，老套，旧框框 The police have been criticized for having stereotyped images of black people. 有人批评警方对黑人有成见。 The characters in the book are just stereotypes. 这书中的角色只是些僵化的人物。 Now you try: 该项研究显示英国的广告对妇女抱有成见。 The study says that British advertisements stereotype women. 他不是个符合法国模式的法国人。 He doesn’t fit the national stereotype of a Frenchman.
Confess: Wouldn't you be surprised to meet a carpenter named Nigel? A physicist called Bertha? A Pope Mel? (Para. 6) carpenter and Nigel : Nigel usually donates a champion or an artist who are of higher social class a carpenter is usually seen as a labor worker of lower social class.
physicist and Bertha: Bertha usually makes people think of somebody who is fat. A physicist, should know how to eat healthily and keep a good figure.
Pope and Mel: A Pope is a person of very high social class and is highly respected. Mel usually donates an image of a car repairman. If a Mel drinks, he drinks beer instead of wine.
we project name-based stereotypes on people... (Para. 6) • Meaning: ... we imagine that people have the qualities suggested by their names...