CHAPTER SEVEN. PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT AND LEADING TEAMS. Learning Objectives. Understand when and why participation should be used to improve leadership effectiveness. Explain the role of culture in the use and success of participative leadership.
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CHAPTER SEVEN PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT AND LEADING TEAMS
Learning Objectives • Understand when and why participation should be used to improve leadership effectiveness. • Explain the role of culture in the use and success of participative leadership. • Specify the elements of effective delegation. • Clarify the role of leadership in self-managed teams. 5. Explain the principles of super- and self-leadership.
Traditional organization Team-based organization Occasional use of teams and employee participation High management Control – No employee Participation Total delegation High employee Participation The Continuum of Participation Organizational Structure Management Control
Criteria for Use of Participation • When the task is complex and quality is important • When follower commitment is needed • When there is time • When the leader and follower are ready • When the leader and followers can easily interact
Benefits of Participation • Development of followers • Better decision on complex tasks • Increase in follower motivation and commitment • Opportunity to empower followers
Guidelines For Good Delegation • Delegate pleasant and unpleasant tasks • Clarify goals and expectations • Delegate authority along with responsibility • Provide support • Monitor and provide feedback • Delegate to different followers
Excuses For Not Delegating • “My followers are not ready.” • “They do not not have the skills.” • “I am uncomfortable delegating my tasks.” • “I can do the job quicker myself.” • “My followers are too busy.” • “I am responsible for my followers mistakes.” • “My own manager may think I am not working hard enough.”
Characteristics Of Teams • Members are fully committed to common goals they develop • Members are mutually accountable to one another • Members trust one another • Collaborative culture • Shared leadership based on facilitation • Synergy
Self-Managed Teams • Power to manage their own work • Members with different expertise and experience • No outside manager and power to implement team decisions • Coordination with other teams • Internal leadership based on facilitation
Elements of Super Leadership • Developing positive and motivating thought patterns • Personal goal setting • Observation and self-evaluation • Self-reinforcement control and monitoring
Trust Building Trust Open communication Integrity Rewarding cooperation Mutual respect And support Competence And hard work Fairness and equity
Continue to do real work Assess team skills Counsel and encourage Obtain needed training Help define tasks and goals SELF-MANAGED TEAM Help develop implementation plan Clarify team boundaries Manage conflict and relationships Observe from a distance Team Leadership Roles
Characteristics of a Well-Functioning, Effective Group Relaxed, comfortable, informal atmosphere People express feelings & ideas Task well understood & accepted Consensus decision making Members listen well & participate Group aware of its operation & function Clear assignments made & accepted Conflict & disagreement center around ideas or methods
Group Behavior Norms of behavior - the standards that a work group uses to evaluate the behavior of its members Group cohesion - the “interpersonal glue” that makes members of a group stick together Social loafing - the failure of a group member to contribute personal time, effort, thoughts, or other resources to the group Loss of individuality - a social process in which individual group members lose self-awareness & its accompanying sense of accountability, inhibition, and responsibility for individual behavior
Formal groups - official or assigned groups gathered to perform various tasks need ethnic, gender, cultural, and interpersonal diversity need professional and geographical diversity Informal groups - unofficial or emergent groups that evolve in the work setting to gratify a variety of member needs not met by formal groups Group Formation
Stages of Group Formation • Mutual acceptance • Focus is on the interpersonal relations among the members • Decision making • Focus is on decision making activities related to tasks • Motivation & commitment • Focus on self- and group-motivation, execution, achievement • Control & sanctions • Focus on effective, efficient unit
Joining Groups • Security • Status • Self-Esteem • Affiliation • Power • Goal Achievement
Stages of Group Development Prestage 1 Stage I Forming Stage II Storming Stage III Norming Stage V Adjourning Stage IV Performing
Group Behavior Model • External Conditions Imposed on the Group • Group Member Resources • Group Structure • Group Process • Group Task • Performance and Satisfaction
External Conditions Imposed on the Group • Organizational Strategy • Authority Structures • Formal Regulations • Organizational Resources • Personnel Selections Process • Organizational Culture • Physical Work Setting
Group Leaders • Department Manager • Supervisors • Foreman • Project Leaders • Task Force Head • Chairperson • Chief Executive Officer (CEO)
Group Roles • Definition: • Set of expected behavior pattern, attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit • Role Identity • Role Perception • Role Expectations • Role Conflict
Groups Pass Through Task-Oriented and Relationship-Oriented Stages. Some Groups Get Stuck at Certain Stages and Become Dysfunctional STAGE 1 Orientation (Forming) Orientation to Task Testing and Dependence STAGE 2 Redefinition (Storming) Emotional Response to the Demands of the Task Intragroup Conflict STAGE 3 Coordination (Norming) Open Exchange of Relevant Information Development of Group Cohesion STAGE 4 Formalization (Performing) Emergence of a Solution Functional Roles Emerge Dissolution of Group STAGE 5 Termination (Adjourning)
Groups Change Their Ways of Working at Midstream, Focusing More Clearly on Their Goal and Becoming More Effective PROJECT DEADLINE PROJECT STARTS TRANSITION Perform Original Behaviors Perform New, More Effective Behaviors Drop Old Behaviors 0% 50% 100% TIME EXPENDED
Managers Should Consider Six Factors in Choosing Group or Individual Decision Making Factor Group Individual Type of problem or task Acceptance of decision Quality of the solution Characteristics of individuals When efficiency is desired When acceptance is not important When a “best member” can be identified When individuals cannot collaborate When diverse knowledge and skills are required When acceptance by group members is valued When the input of several group members can im- prove the solution When group members have experienced working together
Managers Should Consider Six Factors in Choosing Group or Individual Decision Making (Cont.) Individual Factor Group When the culture supports group problem solving When relatively more time is available Organizational culture Amount of time available When culture is competitive When relatively little time is available Table 6-1b
Cohesiveness & Productivity • Highly cohesive groups are generally more productive • Cohesiveness reduces tension and provides a supportive environment • Group norms play an important role in cohesiveness
Setting Standards Group members help to develop, follow, and enforce the rules, policies, and procedures of the group. Such rules may range from simple ones, like beginning on time, to more complex policies, such as procedures to arrive at consensus. Mission Values Logistical Arrangements Decision Making Conflict
Group Cohesiveness • Time Spent Together • Severity of Initiation • Group Size • External Threats • Previous Successes
Irving Janis’ Model • Antecedent Conditions + Cohesiveness Groupthink Symptoms • Groupthink Symptoms Low Probability of Success
Groupthink Characteristics • Powerful Social Pressures • Concurrence Seeking • Dehumanizing Solutions • Suppression of Deviant Thoughts • Stress
Managers Should Avoid Groupthink in Making Decisions With Groups Symptom Description Members feel they are safe and protected from dangers, ostracism, or ineffective action. Members ignore warnings by rationalizing their own or others’ behavior. Members believe their actions are inherently moral and ethical. Members view opponents as truly evil or stupid and thus unworthy of or incompetent at negotiations around differences in beliefs or positions. Members pressure all individuals in the group to conform to the group’s decision; they allow no questioning or arguing of alternatives. Invulnerability Rationalization Morality Stereotyping Pressure
Managers Should Avoid Groupthink in Making Decisions With Groups (Cont.) Symptom Description Members do not question the group’s decision. Members perceive that everyone in the group has the same view. Members may keep adverse information from other members that might ruin their perceptions of consensus and the effective decision. Self-censorship Unanimity “Mindguarding” Table 6-2b
Major Changes in Leadership Occur as Teams Become Self-Directed STAGE 5 Self-Directed Teams STAGE 4 Tightly Formed Teams STAGE 3 Leader-Centered Teams STAGE 2 Sate of Confusion STAGE 1 Start-Up
Mangers Can Use Three Points of Leverage to Enhance Group Task Performance Points of Leverage Process Criteria of Effectiveness Organizational Context Coaching and Consultation Group Structure Motivational struc- ture of group task Group composition Remedying coor- dination problems and building group commitment Remedying inap- propriate “weight- ing” of member inputs and foster- ing cross-training Ample effort Sufficient knowl- edge and skill Organizational reward system Organizational education system
Mangers Can Use Three Points of Leverage to Enhance Group Task Performance (Cont.) Points of Leverage Process Criteria of Effectiveness Organizational Context Coaching and Consultation Group Structure Group norms that regulate member behavior and foster scanning and plan- ning Organizational information system Task-appropriate performance strategies Remedying imple- mentation prob- lems and fostering creativity in strat- egy deployment Table 6-3b
Diverse Teams Offer Both Advantages and Disadvantages in the Workplace Disadvantages Advantages • Increased ambiguity • Increased complexity • Increased confusion • Increased mistrust • Potential miscommunication • Difficulty in reaching agreements • Difficulty in reconciling diverse • perspectives • Difficulty in reaching consensus • Decreased group cohesion • Increased number of perspectives • Multiple interpretations likely • Greater openness to new ideas • Increased flexibility • Increased creativity • Improved problem solving • Improved understanding of foreign • employees or customers Table 6-4
Differences that Influence Perceptions, Which, in Turn, Influence Intergoup Relations • ORIENTATION • Goals • Time • Social • ATTITUDINAL SETS • Competitive • Cooperative INTERGROUP RELATIONS PERCEPTIONS STATUS DIFFERENCES
Four Categories of Roles • Group Task Roles: roles which facilitate the selection and definition of a common problem and solution. • Group Building and Maintenance: roles which increase the functioning of the group as a group. • Individual Roles: roles which are oriented toward the satisfaction of individual’s needs. • Creative Roles: roles which involve using creativity to identify possible solutions.
The Initiator- Contributor • Suggests or proposes new ideas • may include the suggestion: • for a new group • a new way to view a problem • a new way to address a problem within the group • a new procedure for the group • a new way to organize the group
The Information Seeker • Seeks clarification of suggestions made in terms of their factual adequacy, for authoritative information and facets pertinent to the problem being discussed.
The Opinion Seeker • Asks not primarily for the facts of the case but for a clarification of the values pertinent to what the group is undertaking or of values involved in a suggestion made or in alternative suggestions.
The Information Giver • Offers facts or generalizations which are “authoritative” or relates his own experience pertinently to the group problem.
The Opinion Giver • States his/her belief or opinion pertinently to a suggestion made or to alternative suggestions. The emphasis is on his/her proposal of what should become the group’s view of pertinent values, not primarily upon relevant facts or information.
The Coordinator • Shows or clarifies the relationships among various ideas and suggestions • Tries to pull ideas and suggestions together • Tries to coordinate the activities of various members
The Evaluator- Critic • Subjects the accomplishments of the group to some standard or set of standards of group functioning in the context of the group task. • My evaluate the “practicality”, “logic”, “Facts”, or “procedures”
The Energizer • Prods the group to action or decision. • Attempts to stimulate or arouse the group to greater or higher quality work.