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Chapter 15. Urban Life. Colonial Villages: 1565-1800. The period of 1565-1800 was one of tiny villages Small in size with no more than a few hundred residents at first Walking villages-mostly pedestrian traffic People knew one another These early settlements grew slowly.

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chapter 15

Chapter 15

Urban Life

colonial villages 1565 1800
Colonial Villages: 1565-1800
  • The period of 1565-1800 was one of tiny villages
  • Small in size with no more than a few hundred residents at first
  • Walking villages-mostly pedestrian traffic
  • People knew one another
  • These early settlements grew slowly
westward expansion 1800 1860
Westward Expansion: 1800-1860
  • Westward migration
  • Followed new transportation routes
          • National Road
  • By 1860 about 20% of the population was living in cities
the industrial metropolis 1860 1950
The Industrial Metropolis: 1860-1950
  • Civil war and industrial and urban expansion
          • Industrial metropolis
  • Cities grew in population
          • Expanded outwards around the development of new urban forms of transportation
the industrial metropolis 1860 19505
The Industrial Metropolis: 1860-1950
  • Immigration and Anti-Urban Bias
  • Cities were synonymous with immigrants
          • Ethnic prejudice and the anti-urban bias
  • Cities were synonymous with social problems
          • Early part of the twentieth century urban living was very difficult
postindustrial cities and suburbs 1950 present
Postindustrial Cities and Suburbs: 1950-Present
  • Post WW II and migration to the suburbs
  • Suburbs-urban areas beyond the political boundaries of cities
  • Postindustrial developments-information technology made possible the economic development of the suburbs
  • Decentralizing population from the central cities
fiscal problems
Fiscal Problems
  • Movement of populations and industry from the central city led to some fiscal problems in the 1970’s
  • Corporate mergers and downsizing and loss of jobs in the city
  • Poor were left behind along with an increase in demand for city services
fiscal problems8
Fiscal Problems
  • The postindustrial Revival
  • Postindustrial economic growth and the revitalization of cities
  • Immigrants and population growth
urban sprawl
Urban Sprawl
  • Cities and outward expansion
  • Government policies
          • Interstate highways
          • Low cost housing
  • The emergence of the megalopolis-urban region containing a number of cities and their surrounding suburbs
urban sprawl10
Urban Sprawl
  • Urban sprawl-rapid,unplanned, and low-density development at the edge of urban areas
  • Urban sprawl
          • The numbness of urban sameness
          • Consumption of land
          • Auto-gridlock and pollution
urban sprawl11
Urban Sprawl
  • Edge Cities – business centers located some distance from the old downtowns
  • Mostly commercial developments
  • Most major cities contain several edge cities
  • Urban decentralization has increased the plight of the poor
          • Loss of city jobs to edge cities
poverty
Poverty
  • Migration of city jobs to the suburbs and elsewhere and the concentration of poverty in cities
          • Disadvantaged minorities
          • Lack of economic opportunities
housing problem
Housing Problem
  • The Horror of the Tenements
  • Immigrants and tenement housing in the early part of the twentieth century
  • Poorly constructed
  • Crowded living conditions
  • The 1930’s and the New Deal saw improvement in housing
housing problem14
Housing Problem
  • Inner-City Decline
  • Post WW II and the migration of city dwellers to the suburbs
  • Decline of the city
  • Govt., passed the Urban Housing Act of 1949
          • Urban Renewal an attempt to revitalize urban areas
  • Urban renewal and the regeneration of slums
housing problem15
Housing Problem
  • Public Housing
  • Urban renewal and the emergence of public housing
  • Public Housing-typically high density apartment buildings, constructed with government funds to house poor people
housing problem16
Housing Problem
  • Public Housing
  • Concerns and Criticisms of public housing
  • Liberals saw it as a band aid approach to the housing problem
  • Conservatives objected to government getting into the housing business and interfering with free-enterprise
  • Poor objected to the cultural stigma associated
housing problem17
Housing Problem
  • Oscar Newman’s study
  • High-rise buildings and higher crime rates
  • Most crimes occurred in public parts of the buildings
  • Reason
          • -High-rise living breeds anonymity
racial segregation
Racial Segregation
  • Race, poverty and residential segregation
  • Hypersegregation-entire districts of a city racially segregated
  • Minority/poor urbanites are
          • -Spatially isolated
          • -Socially isolated
homelessness
Homelessness
  • Approximately 500,000 people are homeless on any given day
  • Largely an urban problem
  • Poverty puts people at risk of becoming homeless
  • Family conflict and becoming homeless
  • Decline in affordable rental/housing units
homelessness20
Homelessness
  • Solution to homelessness
  • Supportive housing-program that combines low-income housing with on-site social services
  • Build more low-income units
snowbelt and sunbelt cities
Snowbelt and Sunbelt Cities
  • Population transfer from snowbelt cities to the sunbelt
  • Change in political influence and power from snowbelt to sunbelt
cities in poor countries
Cities in Poor Countries
  • About 75% of the population of rich nations live in cities
  • About 25% of the population in poor countries live in cities
  • Urban population is increasing globally
          • -Rural to urban migration and the emergence of shantytowns
structural functional analysis a theory of urbanism
Structural-Functional Analysis: A Theory of Urbanism
  • Ferdinand Tonnies: Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft
  • Gemeinschaft-type of social organization by which people are closely bound by kinship and tradition
          • -Rural villages
  • Gesellschaft-type of social organization by which people interact on the basis of self interest
          • -urban communities
structural functional analysis a theory of urbanism24
Structural-Functional Analysis: A Theory of Urbanism
  • Emile Durkheim: Mechanical and Organic Solidarity
  • Mechanical solidarity-social bonds based on common feelings and shared moral values
          • -Rural villages
  • Organic solidarity-social bonds based on specialization and mutual interdependence
          • -Urban communities
structural functional analysis a theory of urbanism25
Structural-Functional Analysis: A Theory of Urbanism
  • Louis Wirth: Urbanism as a Way of Life
  • Urban life shaped by large dense, and socially diverse populations
  • Increase in secondary ties and encounters
symbolic interaction analysis experiencing the city
Symbolic- Interaction Analysis: Experiencing the City
  • George Simmel: Urban Stimulation and Selectivity
  • Urbanites and a blasé attitude
  • Blasé attitude of survival do to over stimulation
  • Leo Srole: Mental Health in the Metropolis
  • Studied urban life and mental health
social conflict analysis cities and inequality
Social-Conflict Analysis: Cities and Inequality
  • Urban Political Economy
  • Economic and political structure of the of the society shape the city
  • David Harvey’s study of Baltimore
conservatives the market and morality
Conservatives: The Market and Morality
  • Market economy should shape the city
  • Conservatives support creating
          • -Enterprise zones- inner city where government tries to attract new business with the promise of tax relief
liberals government reform
Liberals: Government Reform
  • Problems of cities stem from social inequality
  • Liberals favor government intervention into solving the problems
radicals the need for fundamental change
Radicals: The Need for Fundamental Change
  • Problems of the city are function of inequality,class, race, and gender
  • Solutions to the problems of the city would require a major overhaul of society and the economic and political order