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Dr Marie-Christine Gasingirwa DG Science, Technologie et Recherche Ministère de l’ Education Kigali, RWANDA April, 2011. La Politique de la Science, la Technologie et l'Innovation au Rwanda. Overview - Introduction: country information - Vision, strategies
La Politique de la Science, la Technologie et l'Innovation au Rwanda
- Introduction: country information
- Vision, strategies
- STI Policy and implementation
- Way forward
Popn density: varies;300-600/km2
GDP: 400 USD/yr (cf 290 USD in 2001 with a target of 900 USD in 2020-Vision)
Land Area: 26,338 square kilometers Location: Between 1 – 3 deg. latitude south and 29- 31deg. longitude east 75 miles from the Equator; 880 miles from the Indian Ocean; 1250 miles from the Atlantic Ocean Altitude: Most of the country lies above 1000 m, with half of which lies between 1500 - 2000 m above sea levelTerrain: Mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with altitude declining from west to east Land use: 47% cropland, 20% forest, 18% pasture, 13% other Administration: 5 Provinces, 30 Districts, 416 Sectors
- “Rwanda’s development will ultimately depend on the development of our human resource base and that of the people, with whom we share our destiny.” (Rwanda 1997, by His Excellence Paul Kagame)
- The application of science and technology is fundamental, and indeed indispensable, to the social and economic transformation of our countries. Productive capacities in modern economies are not based merely on capital, land and labour. They are also dependent on scientific knowledge and sustained technological advances”
(Speech to Royal Society UK September 2006)
- Professor Abdus Salam:
'Scientific and Technological knowledge is a “Human Kind Heritage.”
Therefore any country pre-occupied with changing the livelihood of their people from poverty to better conditions of living must appropriately invest in science, technology, and innovation'
Culture of Innovation
The principal areas for knowledge acquisition start at Primary level and move up through Secondary to Vocational, Technical, and Higher Institutions of learning.
At primary level a project is ongoing to equip all 2,200 primary schools in Rwanda with a science corner. This will display fundamental information about science with particular relevance to the world around the school including the cycle of life, fundamentals of energy, the environment, and a computer with internet connection. OLPC – 100,000 lap tops being rolled out in 2009
The proposed interventions at secondary level will include the provision of a high quality science and technology education, in schools equipped to also undertake practical lessons.
At higher level (NUR, KIST, KHI, KIE, ISAE, UP) priority is focused on theoretical and practical training for medical practitioners, technologists in various fields, agriculturalists, scientists, engineers, doctors etc.
IRST - research and generation of suitable technologies in energy, environment, health, society and economic fields
ISAR - development of appropriate technologies to transform agriculture from subsistence to commercial
RADA - implement the national agriculture policy, supply farmers with appropriate technologies to increase production, reinforce the farmers’ technical capacity
RARDA - growth of animal production through development of appropriate technologies, providing advisory, outreach and extension services to stakeholders in the animal resources sector
RHODA - develop necessary legislation to govern activities for the increased production of horticultural products, implement national horticultural strategy
REMA – implement the national environmental policy, environmental protection and regulation
RDB/IT (Former RITA) – a centre of innovation and national point of reference for ICTs
Culture of Innovation
Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Transfer Supporting the Green Revolution in Rwanda (1)
Agriculture & Animal Husbandry
Water and Sanitation
Transmitter on top of Mount Karismbi
Golden Monkey – Endangered species of Albertine Rift
Methane Gas Plant Lake Kivu
Direct Economic Benefits
Indirect Social and Economic Benefits
1. EFFECTIFS DES ELEVES DANS LES FILLIERES SCIENTIFIQUES AU SECONDAIRE
Research in public institutions is financed partially from the national annual budget with the support of external funders by development partners under bilateral (SIDA-SAREC, DFID, USAID, NUFFIC, JICA, CUD, BTC, GIZ, etc..) and international cooperation (WB, AfDB, UNESCO, UNECA, WHO,etc…)
The National STI policy is expected, with time, to progressively attain the required 1% of the annual budget set aside for R&D as recommended by AMCOST.
Individual research institutions sign MoUs with development partners, both local as well as regional/international, on mutually agreed terms
The Private sector, is strongly urged to invest in research projects as they stand to benefit from them at both short and long term levels.
The problems that beset research in Rwanda are categorized into the following types:
Financial-research is not sufficiently financed leading to some planned projects grinding to a holt before
Lack of qualified human capacity in different domains
Work load vs time: staff at Universities, hardly have any time to engage in research in addition to their heavy involvement in teaching and supervision of their students work. Very few are full time researchers
Infrastructure and research equipments for STI are limited; eg laboratories, workshops, reagents, etc…
Insufficient involvement of the private sector
Mobility /instability of researchers in their careers and research programmes
Data are still scattered in different institutions, eg the RNEC, NISR, HEC, different ministries and agencies,etc….
Disorganized statistics and research reporting was attributed to lack of an organized framework in which all research could be coordinated, before. Since the establishment of the Directorate of Science, Technology and Research (DSTR/I), under the NCSTI law governing research, this coordination is now in progress. Moreover there are, now, well elaborated rules governing research in Rwanda to bring about order.