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World War II. 18.1 The Outbreak of World War II. Nazi Expansion. March 1939 – Hitler’s armies occupied all of Czechoslovakia Hitler wants Polish city of Danzig = defies Munich Agreement Poles refuse to surrender city. Nazi Expansion. France & Britain

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world war ii

World War II

18.1 The Outbreak of World War II

nazi expansion
Nazi Expansion
  • March 1939 – Hitler’s armies occupied all of Czechoslovakia
  • Hitler wants Polish city of Danzig
  • = defies Munich Agreement
  • Poles refuse to surrender city
nazi expansion1
Nazi Expansion
  • France & Britain
  • Will go to war with Germany if Hitler attacks Poland
  • Hope for Soviet help against Nazis
soviet nazi nonaggression pact
Soviet/Nazi Nonaggression Pact
  • August 23, 1939
  • Stalin & Hitler agree not to attack each other
  • Shocks the world since Stalin had been against fascism
  • Secretly agreed to divide Poland
war breaks out
War Breaks Out
  • Sept. 1, 1939
  • German armies invade Poland
  • Sept. 3, 1939
  • Britain & France declare war on Germany & become the Allied Powers
  • Soviet troops also invade eastern Poland and Finland
  • Poland conquered in less than 1 month
presidential election 1940
Presidential Election / 1940
  • Roosevelt wins reelection for his unprecedented third term
  • Won by promising to keep America out of war
  • Secretly knew that American involvement was unavoidable
lend lease act
Lend-Lease Act
  • War materials flowed between Britain & the US
  • Britain can’t pay for the supplies
  • Roosevelt proposed the US lend or lease the supplies to Britain
  • Later extended to Soviets
  • $50 billion shipped total
    • Us received land for military bases
german blitzkrieg
German Blitzkrieg
  • = The use of tanks, planes, paratroopers, and advanced communications to attack quickly and overwhelm ones opponent
  • Means “Lightning War”
france mobilizes falls
France Mobilizes & Falls
  • French troops mobilized on the Maginot Line
  • = Fortification on the southern border between Germany & France
  • Germans defeated Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, and Northern France
france mobilizes falls1
France Mobilizes & Falls
  • Germans – go around Maginot Line through Ardennes Forrest
  • Beat France in 1.5 Months
  • British forced off continent at Dunkirk
  • = Huge Failure
  • Germany established a “puppet” French government in the south at Vichy = Vichy Regime
battle of britain
Battle of Britain
  • May 10, 1940:
  • Winston Churchill: elected PM of Britain
  • Britain stands alone against the Axis
  • Churchill opposed appeasement towards Hitler & continued fighting
battle of britain1
Battle of Britain
  • August 1941
  • Massive, daily & nightly bombings of British cities by Luftwaffe (German Air Force)
  • German Goal: Break British will to fight; doesn’t work
  • British Royal Air Force used radar & destroyed more German planes
operation barbarossa
Operation Barbarossa
  • July 1941
  • Need Oil – fuel for army
  • Hitler’s Generals against this
    • Hitler invades the Soviet Union
    • Violates their agreement; Soviets caught off guard
    • Two front war
battle of the atlantic
Battle of the Atlantic

German U-Boats –

Continued to cause serious damage to Allied ships & supplies

Allies counteracted with –

Better sonar

Faster escort ships

Bombing of submarine shipyards

Nazis lost 783 U-Boats

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