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An Overview of Landfill Gas Energy in the U.S. U.S. EPA Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP) Presented by John Carter (ERG) U.S. Conference of Mayors Municipal Waste Management Association 2005 Fall Summit. EPA’s Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP). Established in 1994

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an overview of landfill gas energy in the u s

An Overview of Landfill Gas Energy in the U.S.

U.S. EPA Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP)

Presented by John Carter (ERG)

U.S. Conference of Mayors

Municipal Waste Management Association

2005 Fall Summit

slide2
EPA’s Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP)
  • Established in 1994
  • Voluntary program that creates alliances among states, energy users/providers, the landfill gas industry, and communities

Mission: To reduce methane emissions by lowering barriers and promoting the development of cost-effective and environmentally beneficial landfill gas energy (LFGE) projects.

slide3
Topics of Discussion
  • What is landfill gas?
  • What can you do with landfill gas?
  • What are the benefits of using landfill gas?
  • How can LMOP assist you in developing a landfill gas to energy project?
slide4
What is Landfill Gas?
  • Landfill gas (LFG) is a by-product of the decomposition of municipal solid waste (MSW).
  • LFG:
    • ~ 50% methane (CH4).
    • ~ 50% carbon dioxide (CO2).
    • <1% non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs).
  • For every 1 million tons of MSW:
    • ~ 0.8 MW of electricity
    • ~ 432,000 cubic feet per day of landfill gas.
  • If uncontrolled, LFG contributes to smog and global warming, and may cause health and safety concerns.
slide6
Why Does EPA CareAbout LFG?
  • Methane is a potent heat-trapping gas.
  • Landfills are the largest human-made source of methane in the US.
  • There are many cost effective options for reducing methane emissions while generating energy.
  • Projects reduce local air pollution.
  • Projects create jobs, revenues, and cost savings.
slide7
LFG Projects ProvideDual Benefits
  • Destroys methane and other organic compounds in LFG
    • Each 1 MW of generation = planting ~11,300 acres of trees per year, removing the emissions of ~7,300 cars per year, or preventing the use of ~89,000 barrels of oil per year
  • Offsets use of nonrenewable resources (coal, oil, gas) reducing emissions of:
    • SO2 - contributes to acid rain
    • NOx - contributes to ozone formation and smog
    • PM - respiratory health concern
    • CO2 - global warming gas
slide8
Stirling “External

Combustion” Engine

Microturbine

Organic Rankine

Cycle Engine

Diversity of Project TypesElectricity Generation

Internal

Combustion

Engine

Gas

Turbine

Emerging Technologies

slide9
Landfill Gas and Green PowerA Winning Combination
  • LFG is a recognized renewable energy resource (Green-e, EPA Green Power Partnership).
  • LFG is generated 24/7 and available over 90% of the time.
  • Serves as the “baseload renewable” for many green power programs.
  • Levelized cost of 4–6 cents per kWh for new electricity projects
  • LFG can act as a long-term price and volatility hedge against fossil fuels.
  • Utilities are already using LFGE.
slide11
Pottery Studio Sugar Grove, NC

LFG-fired Boiler Ft. Wayne, IN

Diversity of Project TypesDirect Use of LFG

  • Direct-use projects are growing!
    • Boiler applications - replace natural gas, coal, fuel oil
    • Combined heat & power (CHP)
    • Direct thermal (dryers, kilns)
    • Natural gas pipeline injection
      • Medium and high-Btu
    • Greenhouse
    • Leachate evaporation
    • Vehicle fuel (LNG)
    • Artist studios
    • Hydroponics
    • Aquaculture (fish farming)

Greenhouse Burlington, NJ

state of the national lfge project industry as of june 2005
State of the National LFGE Project Industry(as of June 2005)
  • More than 380 operational projects in 38 states supplying:
    • 9 billion kilowatt hours of electricity and 74 billion cubic feet of landfill gas to direct use applications in 2004
  • At least 25 projects under construction with many more in the advanced planning stages
  • Currently over 600 candidate landfills with a total MW potential of over 1,500 MW
environmental benefits from current lfge projects nationwide as of june 2005
Environmental Benefits from Current LFGE Projects Nationwide (as of June 2005)
  • Estimated Annual Benefits:
    • Planting over 19,000,000 acres of forest,
    • Preventing the use of over 150,000,000 barrels of oil,
    • Removing emissions equivalent to over 14,000,000 cars, or
    • Offsetting the use of 325,000 railcars of coal.
lfge project incentives
LFGE Project Incentives
  • Green pricing opportunities
  • Tax credits
    • Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 45 Tax Credit
    • State-level renewable resources matching funds
  • Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS)
    • 20 States require utilities to supply a percentage of power from renewable sources (LFG is included)
  • Renewable Energy Credits (RECs)
    • Companies looking to reduce environmental footprint purchase RECs from utilities using LFG
looking to the future
Looking to the Future
  • EIA predicts U.S. energy demand to increase by 32% by 2020
  • Increasing wholesale price of natural gas
  • 2003 the first year that natural gas demand outstripped supply
  • Increased demand for LFG means increased revenue potential for landfills
slide20
How can LMOP assist you?
  • Analyze landfill resource
  • Identify potential matches
  • Assess landfill and end user facilities
  • Look at project possibilities
  • Initial feasibility analyses
  • Facilitate networking
  • Positive public relations
slide23
Additional LMOPTools and Services
  • Project and Candidate Database
  • Peer Matching and Partner Networking
  • Direct Project Assistance
  • State Workshops/Conferences
  • PR/Ribbon Cuttings
  • Web Site (e.g., publications, database)
  • Annual LMOP Conference, Project Expo, and Partner Awards - January 18-19 2006 in Baltimore!
for more information
For More Information…

John Carter

for more information25
For More Information

www.epa.gov/lmop - LMOP Hotline: 888-782-7937

T2 North: Chris

Brian [email protected], (202) 343-9248

Rachel [email protected], (202) 343-9391

WA

ND

MT

MN

NH

ME

WI

VT

SD

OR

ID

MI

WY

NY

MA

IA

T1:Rachel

NE

PA

RI

OH

CT

IL

IN

NV

NJ

T3:Brian

UT

CO

KS

MO

DE

WV

MD

KY

VA

CA

TN

NC

OK

AR

NM

AZ

SC

MS

AL

T2 South:Victoria

GA

LA

TX

AK

PR

FL

VI

HI

Chris [email protected], (202) 343-9406

Victoria [email protected], (202) 343-9291

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