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An Overview of Landfill Gas Energy in the United States. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP). File Last Updated: June 2008. Why EPA is Concerned about Landfill Gas. Why is methane a greenhouse gas?

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an overview of landfill gas energy in the united states

An Overview of Landfill Gas Energy in the United States

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP)

File Last Updated: June 2008

why epa is concerned about landfill gas
Why EPA is Concerned about Landfill Gas
  • Why is methane a greenhouse gas?
    • Methane absorbs terrestrial infrared radiation (heat) that would otherwise escape to space (GHG characteristic)
  • Methane as GHG is over 20x more potent by weight than CO2
  • Methane is more abundant in the atmosphere now than anytime in the past 400,000 years and 150% higher than in the year 1750
  • Landfills were the second largest human-made source of methane in the United States in 2006, accounting for 22.6% generated
epa s landfill methane outreach program
EPA’s Landfill Methane Outreach Program
  • Established in 1994
  • Voluntary program that creates alliances among states, energy users/providers, the landfill gas industry, and communities

Mission: To reduce methane emissions by lowering barriers and promoting the development of cost-effective and environmentally beneficial landfill gas energy (LFGE) projects.

landfill gas 101
Landfill Gas 101
  • Landfill gas (LFG) is a by-product of the decomposition of municipal solid waste (MSW):
    • ~50% methane (CH4)
    • ~50% carbon dioxide (CO2)
    • <1% non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs)
  • For every 1 million tons of MSW:
    • ~0.8 megawatts (MW) of electricity
    • ~432,000 cubic feet per day of LFG
  • If uncontrolled, LFG contributes to smog and global warming, and may cause health and safety concerns
landfill regulations
Landfill Regulations

NSPS and MACT

  • Require gas collection and control system (GCCS) if
    • Design capacity > 2.5 million megagrams or > 2.5 million cubic meters, and
    • Annual nonmethane organic compound emission rate > 50 megagrams
gccs requirements
GCCS Requirements
  • Collect landfill gas from
    • Active areas that have held waste for five years or longer
    • Closed areas that have held waste for two years or longer
gccs requirements continued
GCCS Requirements (continued)
  • Send gas to
    • Flare that complies with provisions in 40 CFR §60.18
    • Control system that it at least 98 percent efficient
    • Treatment system that prepares gas for subsequent sale or use
benefits of using landfill gas
Benefits of using landfill gas
  • Environmental benefits
  • Replaces non-renewable resources
  • Revenue source for landfill owner or operator
  • Gas leaving treatment system is no longer subject to control requirements
  • Cost savings for end users
lfg has been used to help produce
Aluminum

Alternative fuels (biodiesel, CNG, ethanol, and LNG)

Aquaculture (e.g., tilapia)

Arts & crafts (blacksmithing, ceramics, glass)

Biosolids (drying)

Bricks and concrete

Carpet

Cars and trucks

Chemicals

Chocolate

Consumer goods and containers

Denim

Electronics

Fiberglass, nylon, and paper

Furthering space exploration

Garden plants

Green power

Ice cream, milk, and tea

Infrared heat

Juice (apple, cranberry, orange)

Pharmaceuticals

Pierogies and snack food

Soy-based products

Steel

Tomatoes (hydroponic)

Taxpayer savings and increased sustainability!

LFG Has Been Used to Help Produce…
modern sanitary landfill
Modern Sanitary Landfill

Flare/

LFGTE Plant

Gas Header

Pipe

Intermediate/

Final Cover

Leachate

Plant

Liner

System

Waste

Cells

Gas Extraction

Wells

Monitoring Probes

File Last Updated: June 2008

options for using gas
Options for using gas
  • Landfill gas to energy plant
  • Direct thermal
diversity of project types electricity generation
Diversity of Project TypesElectricity Generation

Internal

Combustion Engine

(range from 100 kW to 3 MW)

Gas Turbine

(range from 800 kW to 10.5 MW)

Microturbine

(range from 30 kW to 250 kW)

File Last Updated: June 2008

diversity of project types direct use of lfg

Pottery Studio Sugar Grove, NC

LFG-fired Boiler Ft. Wayne, IN

Diversity of Project TypesDirect Use of LFG
  • Direct-use projects are growing!
    • Boiler applications – replace natural gas, coal, fuel oil
    • Combined heat & power (CHP)
    • Direct thermal (dryers, kilns)
    • Natural gas pipeline injection
      • Medium & high Btu
    • Greenhouse
    • Leachate evaporation
    • Vehicle fuel (LNG, CNG)
    • Artist studio
    • Hydroponics
    • Aquaculture (fish farming)

Greenhouse Burlington, NJ

File Last Updated: June 2008

typical electric project components costs
Typical Electric Project Components & Costs

3 MW, engine, 15-yr project:

  • Total capital cost = ~$3.76 million
    • Gas compression & treatment, engine, & generator = ~$3.5 million
    • Interconnect equipment = ~$260,000*
  • Annual operation & maintenance cost = ~$570,000/year

*interconnect costs can vary widely

typical direct use project components costs
Typical Direct-Use Project Components & Costs

800 scfm, 5-mi pipeline, 15-yr project:

  • Total capital cost = ~$1.63 million
    • Gas compression & treatment = ~$230,000
    • Pipeline = ~$280,000/mile
    • (Plus end-of-pipe combustion equipment retrofits, if needed)
  • Annual operation & maintenance cost = ~$140,000/year
chp and direct use case study bmw manufacturing greer sc

LMOP 2003

Project of

the Year

CHP and Direct-Use Case StudyBMW ManufacturingGreer, SC
  • 9.5-mile pipeline from Palmetto Landfill to BMW
  • 2003 – 4 KG2 gas turbines retrofitted to burn LFG
    • 4.8 MW of electricity generated and 72 million Btu/hr of heat recovered
  • 2006 – Converted paint shop to utilize LFG in oven burners and for indirect heating
  • LFG accounts for nearly 70% of BMW’s energy needs
  • BMW saves at least $1 million/yr

LMOP 2006

Energy End User

Partner of

the Year

regulations that affect lfge
Regulations that Affect LFGE
  • LFGE projects may be affected by a variety of federal, state, and local air quality regulations. Applicable federal Clean Air Act regulations include:
    • New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) / Emission Guidelines (EG)
    • Title V
    • Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)
    • New Source Review (NSR)
    • Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD)
state of the national lfg industry april 2008
State of the National LFG Industry (April 2008)
  • At least 450 operational projects in 43 states supplying:
    • 11 billion kilowatt hours of electricity and 77 billion cubic feet of LFG to direct-use applications annually
  • Estimated Annual Environmental Benefits
    • Carbon sequestered annually by ~17,800,000 acres of pine or fir forests, or
    • CO2 emissions from ~182,000,000 barrels of oil consumed, or
    • Annual greenhouse gas emissions from ~14,300,000 passenger vehicles
  • Estimated Annual Energy Benefit
    • Powering more than 870,000 homes and heating nearly 534,000 homes
many untapped lfg resources
Many Untapped LFG Resources
  • Currently ~540 candidate landfills with a total gas generation potential of 240 billion cubic feet per year (~14,000 MMBtu/hr) OR electric potential of 1,280 MW (~10 million MWh/yr)
  • If projects were developed at all these landfills, estimated
    • Annual Environmental Benefit =

Carbon sequestered annually by ~12.4 million acres of pine or fir forests OR annual greenhouse gas emissions from ~9.9 million passenger vehicles, AND

    • Annual Energy Benefit =

Powering 808,000 homes OR heating 1.5 million homes per year

many untapped lfg resources cont
Many Untapped LFG Resources (cont.)
  • ~485 landfills have a gas collection system but no energy project
    • Potential of 285,000 MMBtu/day or 1,000 MW
  • ~110 landfills have an energy project and excess LFG available
    • Potential of 70,000 MMBtu/day or 250 MW
  • ~1,000 landfills do not have a gas collection system
    • Potential of 236,000 MMBtu/day or 840 MW
estimated annual environmental benefits for fl
Estimated Annual Environmental Benefits for FL

Currently 16 operational projects and 1 under construction (60.9 MW and 3,800 scfm)

Carbon sequestered annually by ~126,000 acres of pine or fir forests, or

CO2 emissions from ~1.29 million barrels of oil consumed, or

Annual greenhouse gas emissions from ~101,000 passenger vehicles

Potential – 22,400 scfm from 19 candidate landfills, if all developed direct-use projects:

Carbon sequestered annually by ~151,000 acres of pine or fir forests, or

CO2 emissions from ~1.5 million barrels of oil consumed, or

Annual greenhouse gas emissions from ~122,000 passenger vehicles

slide27
Baseline LF, Ocala – 3.2 MW Reciprocating Engines

Berman Road LF, Okeechobee – Leachate Evap. (40,000 gpd)

Brevard Co. Central Disposal Facility, Cocoa – 6.2 MW Recip. Engines

Central Disposal SLF, Pompano Beach – 11.3 MW Gas Turbines & Steam Turbine

Girvin Road LF, Jacksonville – 430 kW Recip. Engine

Highlands Co. Solid Waste Management Center, Sebring – Direct Thermal (Asphalt plant)

Lena Rd. Co. LF, Bradenton – Direct Thermal (WWTP)

North Central LF, Winter Haven – Direct Thermal (WTE plant)

North LF, Jacksonville – 540 kW Boiler/Steam Turbine

Current Operational & Under Construction LFGE Projects in FL

slide28
Orange County SLF, Orlando – 12.4 MW Steam Turbine

Osceola Road Solid Waste, Geneva – 6.4 MW Reciprocating Engines

PBCSWA RRF Site #7 – Direct Thermal (under construction)

Saint Lucie County SLF, Fort Pierce – Boiler for steam production

Springhill Regional LF, Campbellton – 4.8 MW Reciprocating Engines

SW Alachua SLF, Archer – 2.4 MW Recip. Engines

Tomoka Farms Road LF, Port Orange – 3.6 MW Recip. Engines

Trail Ridge LF, Baldwin – 9.6 MW Recip. Engines

Current Operational & Under Cons. LFGE Projects in FL (cont.)

slide29
Bee Ridge, Sarasota

Bridgeway Acres, St. Pete

Citrus Co., Lecanto

Gulf Coast, Ft. Meyers

Indian River Co., Vero Beach

Lee/Hendry Co., Labelle

Leon Co., Tallahassee

Martin Co., Palm City

Medley

Naples Collier Co.

New River Regional, Raiford

North Dade, Opa-Locka

Perdido, Cantonment

Sarasota Central, Nokomis

South Dade, Homestead

SE Hillsborough Co., Lithia

Southport Rd., Kissimmee

West Nassau, Callahan

Zemel Rd., Punta Gorda

Candidate Landfills in LMOP Database in FL

lmop tools and services
LMOP Tools and Services
  • Network of 700+ Partners (and growing)
  • Newsletter and listserv
  • Direct project assistance
  • Technical and outreach publications
  • Project and candidate landfill database
  • Web site (epa.gov/lmop)
  • Support for ribbon cuttings/ other PR
  • Presentations at conferences
  • State training workshops
  • Annual conference
lmop locator
LMOP Locator
  • Database tool that geographically matches landfill to end users or end users to landfill
  • Provides information about possible end user or landfill
    • Name
    • Address
    • Distance
    • Technical landfill data
lfgcost
LFGcost
  • Excel-based tool that assists in financial feasibility determination
  • Works with gas curve information
  • Landfill, unit price, and financial inputs
  • Cost models for various project types
  • Financial outputs – NPV, IRR, payback
for more information www epa gov lmop
For More Informationwww.epa.gov/lmop

T4: Swarupa

Rachel Goldsteingoldstein.rachel@epa.gov, (202) 343-9391

Victoria Ludwigludwig.victoria@epa.gov, (202) 343-9291

WA

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ID

MI

WY

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T1:Rachel

NE

PA

RI

OH

CT

IL

IN

NV

NJ

T3:Tom

UT

CO

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MO

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MD

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VA

CA

TN

NC

OK

AR

NM

AZ

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T2:Victoria

GA

LA

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Swarupa Ganguli

ganguli.swarupa@epa.gov, (202) 343-9732

Tom Frankiewicz

frankiewicz.thomas@epa.gov, (202) 343-9232

File Last Updated: June 2008