iv) Bird-Dinosaur - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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by carolina rodrigo briones 9a n.
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  1. By: Carolina Rodrigo Briones 9A iv) Bird-Dinosaur

  2. Dinosaur : "terrible lizard“. They are another group classified in the reptiles, but aren’t lizards. (not necessary) Bird-Dinosaur : ___________ *FACT: In the fist half of the 20th century, Scientifics believed dinosaur birds were cold-blooded. Definition of Name

  3. Types: • Pterodactyl ("wingedfinger") • Archaeopteryx("original bird" or "first bird") • Confuciusornis (?) • Dimorphodon(“teeth in two ways") • Pterosauria ("wingedlizard") • Bird species existing: 10-20,000. Species

  4. Confuciusornis Pterodactyl Dimorphodon Pterosaur Archaeopteryx

  5. Confuciusornis: • Lived in the EarlyCretaceousperiod (135 millionyearsago) • Could be found in Asia (specially China) • Had some characteristics with dinosaurs (clawed hands) • No tail (long feathers) • One of the first known birds to have wishbone • Hard beak • Toothless Characteristics

  6. Pterodactyl: • Jurassic Era (155-150 million years ago) • Lived in Europe and Africa • Pterodactyl -> Ptero-Dactyle (Georges Cuvier in 1809) -> Latinized to Pterodactylus (Rafinesque in 1815) • Its name refers to the long finger holding his wing. • Relatively small • Wings (50-75 cm long) • Pointed beak and teeth • Three short claws and a long finer that extended to the wingtip. • Habited in the shores of large lakes (fish) • Long beak and with small teeth helped to catch their prey. CHARACTERISTICS (2)

  7. Dimorphodon: • Lived Mid-Jurassic Era (180-154 million years ago) • Could be found in CentraMexico and England. • Because it ate fish, scientists believe its hair was waterproof. • Its height was usually between 3-4 feet. • Length was 8 feet. (including tail) • Long tail (helped lead the flight) • Large head • Two different types of teeth • Strong but flexible beak • Diet: fish • First fossils found in England, 1828 (Mary Anning) • Named “Dimporphon” by Richard Owen in 1859 (palentologist) CHARACTERISTICS (3)

  8. Pterosaur: • First fossil found by Cosimo Collini in 1784 (Italian naturalist) • Lived during the Mesozoic Era (228-65 million years ago) • Could be found in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North and South America. • Body: • Wings formed by membrane that supported fourth finger. • Whole body covered in hair. • Its jaw was long; rounded tip/end. CHARACTERISTICS(4)

  9. Archaeopteryx: • Lived during early Tithonian Stage of Jurassic Period (150.5-148.5 million years ago) • Roughly size of a Raven. • Broad wings; round at the end • Long tail (compared to body size) • 20 in. length maximum. • Small teeth • Its feathers are similar to modern day bird feathers. • Similar in structure and design • Had also characteristics from theropod dinosaur. CHARACTERISTICS(5)

  10. First fossil of feathered found was in Liaoning, China during the 1990’s. • Had been many discoveries but feathered dinosaurs have been more common. • fossil feathers have roughly the same appearance as the birds fossilized in the area. • In 2012 -> samples of amber • Feathers from 75-80 million years ago (Cretaceous Era) • Some feathers were used for insulation, and not flight. • Complex feathers have variations in coloration, similar to modern birds. Fossil Record

  11. Pterosauruslayed eggs • Leathery egg shell • Eggs were small (like reptiles, unlike birds) • They buried eggs (like turtles or crocodiles) • Helped adaptations: weight reduced • But it limited possible living environments • Dependent on parents for short period of time • (until wings grew) • Could fly as soon as egg hatched reproduction

  12. Warm-blooded; physiology helped stay in the air. • 1st vertebrate to fly • Diet: fish • Plunged in water for fish (e.g. pelicans) • Also ate insects • Soared hundreds of miles on hunting expeditions • Physical: • Very elongated forearms and legs • Long neck; big flat feet • Longer head than body • Bizarre jaw -> long, curved tip Lifecycle(Pterosaur)

  13. Keratinous papillae system (like flamengo’s) • In their mouth -> used for selecting some food types. • Food was rasped against upper teeth until organic pulp was created. • Then, filtered to teeth of lower jaw. • When had enough food to swallow, would tilt its head up and a sphincter at top of throat would open • Food was sent to the esophagus to its stomach. DigestiveSystem(Pterosaur)

  14. Respiratory: • Had similar respiratory system as modern birds. • Required huge amount of oxygen in order to power their large wings. • *could have breathing problems due to long neck. • Abdominal Muscles: • Tightly packed in several internal organs. • When the animal flexed muscles lungs expanded. (e.g.. Catch prey) • Air Sacs: • Relied to provide enough oxygen. • It extended into the interior of the bones • form of tiny tubes pumping additional oxygen • Geochemical and data indicate -> • dinosaurs appeared atmospheric oxygen concentration was half of today’s • Development of avian-type resp. system may been the “key” dinosaur’s evolution success. Respiratory and Circular Systems(Pterosaur)

  15. Circulatory: • Vertical column above heart would require blood pressure • Implications for cardiac size and function led to alternative cardiopulmonary designs. • When young, metabolism went fast but as they reached the adult size metabolism slowed down. • Diminished the load on circulatory system. • Had four chambered hearts. Respiratory and Circular Systems(Pterosaur) (2)

  16. Animals had a massive focculus. (brain region that integrates signals from joints, muscles and skin) • Flocculus send signals so that the eye muscles produce automatic movements. • Pterosaurs' flocculi occupied 7.5% of the animals' total brain mass. • Birds usually do not have large flocculicompared with any other animal (1%-2% total brain mass) • Have so large flocculus due to large wings. (more sensory informartion to process) SensorySystem(Pterosaur)

  17. Diapsid: ("twoarches") • Reptiles (cold-blooded) • Twoholesbehindeacheye • Synapsids: ('fusedarch') • Mammal-like (warm-blooded) – vertebrates/backbone • Single Opening, (“temperal fenestra”) ”skull roof” behind each eye • Synapsid developed from amnoites. • Primitive synapsids– Pelycosaurs • Advanced mammal-like – Therapsids. Skull

  18. Hallow bones only found on dinosaurs and birds. Number of bones and structure of a chicken is very similar to predatory dinosaurs. Feathers are highly evolved scales Evidence of feathery dinosaurs came from China Fun Facts

  19. http://axxon.com.ar/not/152/c-1520148.htm http://elcajondesastre.blogcindario.com/2005/09/00126-terodactilos-gigantes-los-mas-grandes-voladores.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeopteryx http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,2029779_2029777_2029766,00.html http://axxon.com.ar/not/152/c-1520148.htm http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pterodactylus http://dinosaurs.about.com/od/aviandinosaurs3/p/dimorphodon.htm http://www.educar.org/prehistoria/fosiles/Dimorphodon.asp http://www.dinoguia.com/carnivoros/dimorphodon http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimorphodon http://infodinos.blogspot.com/search/label/volador http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pterosauria http://www.cambridge.org/gb/knowledge/isbn/item5634817/?site_locale=en_GB http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/diapsids/pterosauria.html Bibliography