Economic and industrial geography terms
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Economic and Industrial Geography Terms. 2007. Agricultural labor force. % of people employed in agriculture High % of people employed in agriculture associated with low per capita income and low energy consumption and underdevelopment. Calorie consumption.

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Agricultural labor force
Agricultural labor force

  • % of people employed in agriculture

  • High % of people employed in agriculture associated with low per capita income and low energy consumption and underdevelopment

Calorie consumption
Calorie consumption

  • Requirements vary according to occupation, age, sex, size and climate conditions

  • Used to assess the degree of undernourishment of a country’s population

Core periphery model
Core-periphery model

  • A model of the spatial structure of the economic system in with underdeveloped or declining peripheral areas are defined with respect to their dependence on a dominating developed core region

Cultural convergence
Cultural convergence

  • The tendency for cultures to become more alike as they increasingly share technology and organization structures in a modern world united by improved transportation and communication

Dependency theory
Dependency theory

  • A structuralist model arguing that political and economic relationships (especially colonialism) between countries and regions control and limit the extent to which regions can develop

Energy consumption
Energy consumption

  • A measure of development correlated loosely with per capita income, degree of industrialization, and use of advanced technology

Foreign direct investment
Foreign direct investment

  • The total of overseas business investments made by private companies


  • Social differences between men and women---vary greatly over time and space


  • The value of the goods and services produced within a country in a given year


  • The value of the goods and services produced by a country’s economy within a given year. Includes goods and services produced by corporations and individuals of a country, whether or not they are located within the country

Human development index
Human Development Index

  • An indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by the UN, compining income, literacy, education and life expectancy

Measures of development
Measures of Development

  • Human development index

  • Gender related development index

  • Gender empowerment measure


  • Economic and political strategies by which powerful core states indirectly maintain or extend influence over other areas or people

Physical quality of life index
Physical Quality of Life Index

  • an attempt to measure the quality of life or well-being of a country. The value is a single number derived from basic literacy rate, infant mortality, and life expectancy at age one, all equally weighted on a 0 to 100 scale

Purchasing power parity
Purchasing Power Parity

  • A monetary measurement taking into account what money actually buys in a country

W w rostow
W.W. Rostow

  • Developed the five stages of growth

Technology gap
Technology Gap

  • The contrast between the technology available in the core and present in the periphery

Technology transfer
Technology Transfer

  • The diffusion or acquisition by one culture or region of the technology possessed by another

Third world
Third World

  • can be used to divide the nations of Earth into one of three broad categories

  • the Third World became a synonym for those nations that aligned themselves with neither the West nor with the Soviet Bloc during the Cold War.

World systems theory
World Systems Theory

  • Emmanuel Wallerstein

  • One of many theories that treat the global economy as a large system


  • When a substantial number of enterprises cluster in the same area, as in a large industrial city, they can provide assistance to each other through shared talents, services and facilities

Agglomeration economies
Agglomeration Economies

  • agglomeration economies refers to savings or benefits derived from the clustering of activities

Assembly line fordism
Assembly Line/Fordism

  • Traditionally in large factories each worker was assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly

Bid rent theory
Bid Rent Theory

  • a geographical theory that refers to how the price and demand on land changes as the distance towards the CBD (Central Business District) increases.

Break of bulk point
Break of Bulk Point

  • The location (usually a port) where a shipment is divided into parts. This usually (such as at the port) happens where a transfer of the shipment between transport modes occurs, such as between water and land at a port.

Comparative advantage
Comparative Advantage

  • Principle whereby places and regions specialize in activities for which they have the greatest advantage in productivity relative to other regions----or for which they have the least disadvantage


  • The process of industrial deconcentration in response to technological advances and/or increasing costs due to congestion and competition


  • a relative decline in industrial employment in core regions

Economic sectors
Economic Sectors

  • Primary

  • Secondary

  • Tertiary

  • Quaternary

  • Quinary

Economies of scale
Economies of Scale

  • Savings that accrue from large-scale production when the unit cost of manufacturing decreases as the level of operation enlarges


  • Aims to inform about the natural environment


  • A place, usually a port city where goods are imported, stored, and transshipped; a break of bulk point

Export processing zone
Export Processing Zone

  • Small areas within which especialy foavorble investment and trading conditions are created by governments in order to attract export oriented industries

Fixed costs
Fixed Costs

  • Fixed costs are expenses whose total does not change in proportion to the activity of a business, within the relevant time period or scale of production.

    • Rent

    • Utilities

    • Payroll

Footloose industry
Footloose Industry

  • an industry whose production costs are unaffected by location

  • many modern industries have components which are much easier to transport, giving them much more choice of location

Four tigers
Four Tigers

  • These countries and territories were noted for maintaining high growth rates and rapid industrialization between the early 1960s and 1990s

Growth poles
Growth Poles

  • Economic activities that are deliberately organized around one or more high-growth industries

  • Industries designed to stimulate growth through the establishment of various supporting industries

Industrial location theory
Industrial Location Theory

  • Attempts to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity in terms of the factors that influence this pattern

Industrial regions
Industrial Regions

  • Western and Central Europe

  • Eastern North America

  • Russia and Ukraine

  • Eastern Asia

Industrial revolution
Industrial Revolution

  • A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods


  • The foundations of society:

    • Urban centers

    • Transport networks

    • Communications

    • Energy systems

    • Educational facilities

    • Farms, factories, mines

International division of labor
International Division of Labor

  • The specialization by countries in particular products for export

Labor intensive

  • An industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses

Least cost location
Least-Cost Location

  • Model developed by Weberaccording to which the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimalization of three critical expenses

    • 1)

    • 2)

    • 3)


  • Factories built by US companies in Mexico near the US border to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico

  • Imported components or raw materials are assembled and then finished products are exported

  • An example of an export processing zone

Market orientation
Market orientation

  • Production of a good will be located near the market if the cost of transporting goods to consumers is a critical locational factor

    • Bulk gaining

    • Single market

    • Perishable

  • Example of a situation factor

Multiplier effect
Multiplier effect

  • Expansion of economic activity caused by the growth or introduction of another activity


  • North American Free Trade Agreement

  • 1994

  • Created a free trade area between US, Mexico and Canada

  • Provides for tariff free movement of goods, products, financial services, telecommunications, investment and patent protection


  • The process of transfering a function or service to a third party

  • Generally takes advantage of low wages in semi-peripheral or periphery countries


  • An emerging economy in technologically advanced countries as traditional industry is overshadowed by a high-tech productive complex dominated by services and info related and managerial activities

Resource orientation
Resource orientation

  • If the weight and bulk of any one input is particularly great, the firm may locate near the source of that input to minimize transportation costs

    • Bulk reducing industries

      • Copper

      • Steel

Special economic zones china
Special economic zones (China)

  • SEZ’s

  • A specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign businesses and investment

  • a geographical region that has economic laws that are more liberal than a country's typical economic laws

Substitution principle
Substitution principle

  • From Weber, when one cost decreases a firm can endure higher costs in another area

Threshold range

  • Range is the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service

  • Threshold is the minimum number of people needed to support the service

Time space compression
Time-space compression

  • The reduction in time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems

Transnational corporation
Transnational corporation

  • A company that conducts research, operates factories and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located


  • Being or seeming to be everywhere at the same time

Variable costs
Variable costs

  • expenses that change in proportion to the activity of a business

Weight gaining
Weight gaining

  • an industry that makes something that gains volume or weight during production

    • Bulk gaining industries

Weight losing
Weight losing

  • An economic activity in which the final product weighs less than its inputs

    • Bulk reducing

      • Copper

      • Steel

World cities
World cities

  • Most closely integrated into the global economic system because they are at the center of the flow of information and capital

    • London

    • New York

    • Tokyo