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Lessons on Interoperability: The Shootings at Columbine. National Capital Special Operations Symposium Ottawa, Ontario November 14-15, 2012. Presentation Outline. Case Study: Columbine Lessons, Problems, and Barriers Improving Interoperability and Response Outcomes. Columbine High School.

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Lessons on Interoperability: The Shootings at Columbine


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Lessons on Interoperability: The Shootings at Columbine National Capital Special Operations Symposium Ottawa, Ontario November 14-15, 2012

    2. Presentation Outline • Case Study: Columbine • Lessons, Problems, and Barriers • Improving Interoperability and Response Outcomes

    3. Columbine High School • Approximately 2,000 students • 120 Teachers • 20 Staff Personnel • 75 Classrooms • 25 Exterior Doors • Gymnasium, Cafeteria, Library and Auditorium • 250,000 square feet

    4. Explosives “Walk in, set bombs at 11:09 for 11:17. Leave….”

    5. Small Arms and Knives

    6. Improvised Explosive Devices • 46 EXPLODED DEVICES • Outside 2 • Library 26 • Class/Hall 14 • Cafeteria 4 • 30 UNEXPLODED DEVICES • Outside 13 • Library 5 • Class/Halls 6 • Cafeteria 6

    7. Initial Operations: Fire/EMS • Triage/Transport • Transported 26 • Triaged over 160 • Staging Resources • Fire Strike Team • Command and Control • Communications

    8. Fire/EMS Organization

    9. Initial Operations: Law Enforcement • SWAT • Find shooters • Protect students • Transport wounded • Secure perimeter • Check evacuees for weapons • Reunite parents and students

    10. Law Enforcement Organization

    11. Jefferson County Schools • Help get students out of building • Account for students • Move students to another location • Reunite students & parents • Mental health service • Victim advocates • Brief families and media

    12. Communications Problems • Controlling ground-space • Incompatible communications • Channel congestion • System overload

    13. Command and Control Problems • Weak coordination • Low situational awareness • Paramedics under fire

    14. Impact • Slows down the response • Creates inefficient use of resources • Reduces operational effectiveness • Endangers first responders

    15. Unified Command: Strategic Objectives • Secure perimeter • Locate/eliminate shooters • Reach/move wounded • Triage, treatment, transport

    16. Joint Operations: Total Response FIRE 6 Departments 166 Personnel EMS 7 Agencies 80 Personnel LAW ENFORCEMENT 28 Agencies Over 900 Personnel

    17. Incident Dynamics • Improvised Explosive Devices • Small Arms Fire • Multiple Casualties • First Responders Taking Fire • Structure Fire • Crime Scene

    18. Incident Details • 188 Shots Fired by Harris and Klebold • 141 Shots Fired by Law Enforcement • 89 Improvised Explosive Devices • 15 Killed • 160+ Triaged • 24 Transported

    19. Lessons Learned • Information • Situational Awareness • Communications • Redundancy • Multi-channel/system operations • Command and Control • Resource Management • Joint Operations • Multiple jurisdictions and disciplines

    20. Common Problems • Planning • Independent Planning • Jurisdictional/Organizational Boundaries • Organizing • Not Coordinated or Integrated • Separate Structure/Process • Communications • Incompatible Systems • Congestion/Overload • Loss of Infrastructure

    21. Operational Outcome Factors • Inter-Organizational Planning • Response Structure • Decision Making Process • Communications Systems

    22. Planning Options • No Planning • Not important, not enough time • Position Based Planning • This person, in this position, does this function • Threat Based Planning • If/Then • Jurisdiction Based Planning • Separate Structure/Process • Capabilities Based Planning • Objectives/Priorities/Resources • Joint Regional Planning • Integrated and Coordinated Structure/Process

    23. Threat Scenario Impact Damage Operations Simple/Complex C3 Requirements Response Planning

    24. Organizational Structure • Separate • Coordinated • Integrated

    25. IC IC IC IC IC O O O O O P P P P P L L L L L Separate Structure A B C E D

    26. IC IC IC O O O P P P L L L Coordinated Structure

    27. Integrated Structure

    28. Sense Making Decision Making Assessment Planning Execution Action Operational Decision Making Cycle

    29. Social Context of Decision Making • Local view of operations • Local actions effect others • Available time effects success of operations • Common intent to achieve coordinated action • Develop common ground before incident • Consistent exchange and interaction builds social relations

    30. Results of Improved Social Relations • Improves acquisition and interpretation of information • Reduces decision time and improves quality of decisions • Reduces uncertainty regarding roles, responsibilities and abilities • Reduces goal conflict • Improves coordination • Improves ability to adapt

    31. Communications Systems • Effective coordination depends on efficient communication • Development of systems based on typical incidents • High frequency events • Simple • Low information demands • System not capable of dealing with catastrophic incidents • Low frequency events • Complex • High information demands

    32. High Information Exchange Amount and Rate Frequency Low Complexity Simple Complex Multiple: Jurisdictions Disciplines Levels of Government Single: Jurisdiction Discipline Level of Government Frequency and Complexity

    33. Denial/Avoidance Financial Limited Resources Competing Priorities Technical Obsolete Equipment Incompatible Systems Cultural Competition Territorialism Self-Sufficiency Barriers to Integrated Operations

    34. Separate Structure Separate Process Separate Systems Delayed information Inaccurate information Incomplete information Different levels of awareness Unclear reporting relationship Conflicting decision strategies Inefficient resource use Increased risk to personnel Operational Effect

    35. Improving Response Effectiveness • Technology • People

    36. Inter-Organizational Approach • Technological • Independent organizations that need to talk to each other • Communications systems are the primary concern • Operational practices do not need to change • Operational • Inter-dependant organizations that need to work together • Operational systems are the primary concern • Operational practices must change

    37. Definition of Interoperability • Technical Interoperability: the condition achieved among communications systems when information can be exchanged directly and satisfactorily between users • Operational Interoperability: ability of agencies to accept services from other agencies and to use those services so exchanged to enable them to operate effectively together

    38. Common Sense Definition The degree to which organizations or individuals are able to operate together to achieve common goals.

    39. Developing Technological Solutions • Focus • Communications systems, equipment • Purpose • Establish a link – voice/data • Problems • Ignores importance of operational practices • Does not recognize complexity of large scale incidents • Impact • High dollar cost, low impact on effectiveness

    40. Developing Operational Solutions • Focus • Regionalized Operational Networks • Purpose • Integration, Collaboration, Coordination • Problems • Difficult to change organizational culture • Denial, competition, territorialism, self-sufficiency • Impact • Low dollar cost, high impact on effectiveness