Tier 2 Writing Interventions: Supporting Struggling Students Cristianne Lane, M.Ed Lee Pesky Learning Center
IntroductionsLogistics r t i
Project Sponsor Idaho Department of Education Special Education Division Richard Henderson, Director firstname.lastname@example.org SESTA Gina Hopper, Director email@example.com
Training Outline • Struggling Writers • Current Research and Recommendations • Steven Graham and Karen Harris • An Evidence-based Instructional Model • Strategies Linked to CCSS • Two main text structures • P-O-W and T-R-E-E (Standard #1) • Color-coded Outlines (Standards #1 and #2) • W-W-W, What= 2, How= 2 (Standard #3) • Screening, Assessing and Monitoring Progress
Your Materials • PowerPoint slides (yellow) • Handouts (white) • Common Core Writing Standards (pink) • Manila folder for activities • Highlighters and markers • Screening, assessing, progress monitoring handouts (this afternoon)
Handouts, page 2 What do we know about our struggling students? What makes writing challenging?
Research and Recommendations The Educator Article, pages 3-5 Table Discussions
Recommendations • Strategy instruction has a high evidence base • Teach the writing process • The planning step is often short- changed • Revising and editing are challenging • Time needs to be allocated to writing instruction • Writing experiences should be purposeful and offer variety • Research supports the Self-Regulated Strategy Development Model
Prompts are Important! Who is the audience? What is the purpose? Considerations: Content areas topics/standards Spelling patterns Student interests
Who is the Audience? Write a business letter to someone (a business, reading buddy, relative, friend, character in a story, a famous person, an insect, an organ, an alien) Publish in newsletters (articles, poems, announcements, book reviews, compliments) Write for another class, or classmate Write to the principal Write to persuade someone
R= role of the writer (what is the writer’s point of view/voice) A= audience F= format T= topic or subject S= strong verb (persuade, analyze, create, predict, compare, defend, evaluate, etc.)
Prompt Resources • Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium sample items • Eduplace.com (prompts and samples) • ReadWriteThink.org • TheTeachersCorner.net
The SRSD Model of Instruction, pg. 6 • Develop background knowledge • Discuss the strategy • Model the strategy • Have students memorize it • Support it • Give students opportunities for independent practice
Training Outline • Struggling Writers • Current Research and Recommendations • Steven Graham and Karen Harris • An Evidence-based Instructional Model (SRSD) • Strategies linked to CCSS • Two main text structures • P-O-W and T-R-E-E (Standard #1) • Color-coded Outlines (Standards #1 and #2) • W-W-W, What= 2, How= 2 (Standard #3) • Screening, Assessing and Monitoring Progress
Two Major Text Structures Informational Story (Expository) (Narrative) Opinion Story Informative Personal Narrative Explanatory Research
Informational (pg. 7) Story Expository Narrative
Standard #1: 3rd-5th Write an opinion piece on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons. • Introduce topic and state opinion • Create an organization structure • Provide reasons (3rd) and facts supporting the opinion • Use linking words and phrases • Provide a conclusion
Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium Sample Item for 3rd Grade, pg. 9 Sample Item for 9thGrade, pg. 12
P-O-W!by Graham and Harris • Pick my idea • Organize my notes (T-R-E-E) • Write and say more
When you introduce a strategy...remember the SRSD Model • Build background • Discuss • Model • Memorize • Support • Independent Practice
T-R-E-E: Paragraph Version Topic Reasons End it Examine See handouts, pg. 13
T-R-E-E: Essay Version Topic Reasons Explain your reasons End it See handouts, pg. 14
Topic Sentence Starters, pg. 16 In my opinion, I think… I believe… Personally, Although,
Linking WordsProgression: from basic...to more sophisticated...to embedded/implied First, Second, Third, To begin, In addition, Also, My initial Next, Finally, Moreover, Not only Furthermore, Another
Concluding Statements All in all, Overall, In conclusion, To sum up, On the whole,
Scaffolding Ideas: page 17 Paragraph Sentence Word
Mat Sam It is all about scaffolding!
Do you like winter? Reason
Do you like winter? fun Reason sno
Scaffolding I like __________________________. Reason:
I believe ________________________ is the best season. Reason #1 Reason #2
I believe ___________________________ ____________________________________. I think this because_____________________ ____________________________________. Also, ________________________________ ____________________________________. All in all, _____________________________ ____________________________________.
Debrief • Do you have a research-based tier 2 strategy for teaching standard #1? • Would the T-R-E-E strategy help your struggling students? • How would you scaffold for your students? • What are implications for tier 1 instruction?
Standard #2: 3rd-5th Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. • Introduce topic • Develop topic with facts/details/definitions, etc. • Link ideas • Use content specific, precise vocabulary • Write conclusion
Color-code everything...and link to READING experiences! Examples: • Class discussions • Reading informational text • Graphic organizers • Writing
Tier 2 Writing Current Research and Recommendations Strategy instruction Purposeful writing experiences SRSD Strategies POW and TREE Color-coding Wrap-Up (go back and remind your reader...)
Color-coded Outlines: K-1 Topic Reason, detail or fact Reason, detail or fact Reason, detail or fact Conclusion
Color-coded Outlines Topic Reason, detail or fact STOP and explain Reason, detail or fact STOP and explain Conclusion
Modeling the Outline Please turn to Chapter 5 in your whale book. Why are whales in trouble?
Add the linking words: First Second Third To begin Next Finally Also Last Then In addition Furthermore
Carter, 5th grade (before) The Thunderbird crash was scary. He almost hit a control tower. They used to have eight thunderbirds, now they have only five. He ejected at the last second. It burst into flames. It blew up lots of dirt. It was terrifying. My heart was pounding.
Carter “After” page 18 Mountain Home better than Boise Smells better First, Less cars Better fishing Also, Legacy Park Better shooting Next, Illegal to shoot in Boise Conclusion
Scaffolding: Framed Paragraphs We learned many facts about whales. First ______________________________ Second ___________________________ Third ______________________________. I know a lot about whales.
Wrapping Text We learned many facts about whales. First, __________________________. Second, ___________________________________ _____________. Third, _______________ ______________________________. I know a lot about whales.
Sophisticated Example Martin Luther King is a revered American hero for many reasons. To begin, __________________ _________________________________________. In addition, _______________________________ ______________________________. Furthermore, _________________________________________ _________________________________________. Clearly, Martin Luther King embodies __________ ________________________________________.