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Chapter 14 Reform and Renewal in the Christian Church

Chapter 14 Reform and Renewal in the Christian Church

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Chapter 14 Reform and Renewal in the Christian Church

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  1. Chapter 14 Reform and Renewal in the Christian Church The Protestant Reformation The Catholic Reformation

  2. Unit ObjectivesPg. 26 in notebookWarning: it’s long; write small • VII. Protestant Reformation • A. Causes of the Protestant Reformation • 1. Declining prestige of the papacy* • 2. Early critics of the Church* • 3. Corrupt church practices (e.g., simony, pluralism, absenteeism, clerical ignorance) • 4. Renaissance humanism (e.g., Erasmus)

  3. Unit Objectives • B. Martin Luther (1483–1546) • 1. 95 Theses (1517) • 2. Impact of Lutheranism on women • 3. Luther’s views on new sects and peasantry • C. Calvinism • 1. John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) • 2. Tenets: predestination, the elect, Protestant work ethic • 3. Strict theocracy in Geneva • 4. Spread of Calvinism

  4. Objectives Continued • D. Anabaptists (the “left wing” of the Protestant Reformation) • E. Reformation in England • 1. John Wycliffe, the Lollards* • 2. Henry VIII and the creation of the Church of England • 3. Mary Tudor (“Bloody Mary”) (1553-58) • 4. Elizabeth I (1558–1603)

  5. Objectives -End • VIII. Catholic Reformation • A. Causes • B. Council of Trent (1545-63) • C. New religious orders • D. Peace of Augsburg (1555)

  6. Problems Facing the Church on the Eve of the Reformation (Review) • The Black Death gave rise to anticlericalism (why?) • The Great Schism (why?) • The rise of “pietism” – a notion of a direct relationship between individuals and God (why?) Come on – You can do it! • The growth of the power of monarchs (why?)

  7. The Condition of the Church 1400-1517 • Declining Prestige • The Great Schism and the Babylonian Captivity • Secular humanist and moral corruption • 16th Century- Signs of Disorder • Critics wanted reform (Moral and Administrative) • Clerical immorality • Education of clergy • Ordination Standards • Absenteeism • Pluralism

  8. A Word About the Printing Press • The search for new printing technology increased as more universities were built in the late middle ages • Block printing made its way to Europe from Asia, but wasn’t efficient • German Johannes Guttenberg given credit for printing Bibles between 1452 and 1453

  9. Impact of the Printing Press • Many Renaissance ideas were spread, including Humanism and individualism • An increase in the number of books led to a significant increase in literacy in the 16th century • Ideas of “Christian Humanism” spread, having an impact on society, politics and religion (you see where we are going with this) • A theory – “Few inventions in human history have had as great an impact as the printing press”

  10. Prelates and Popes were often members of the nobility and lived in splendor • Moral corruption • Signs of Strength (late 15th and early 16th centuries) • Europe remained deeply religious • Parish clergy brought spiritual help to the people • Organization to minister to poor • The Brethren of the Common Life • Making religion personal • The Imitation of Christ • Simple way of life • Lateran council 1512-1527 (Julius II)

  11. Other Problems • Poorly educated clergy ( a plus for Luther, by the way) • Simony and pluralism • Indulgences • The extravagance of the Church • Immoral clergy

  12. Preview: Protestant ReformationPg. 28 in notebook PROTESTANT REFORMATION 1. Define the root word. As we take notes today, write down examples of the root word in action. Do not copy the yellow parts. • 1. Define the root word. • As we take notes today, write down examples of the root word in action. • Do not copy the yellow parts.

  13. 3.2A

  14. Early Movements of the Late Middle Ages (Pre-Luther) • John Wycliffe of England 1329-1384 • Questioned church wealth, transubstantiation, the practice of penance, indulgences • Urged followers (Lollards) to read the Bible • Jan Hus of Bohemia 1369-1415 • Rector of University of Prague • Authority lies in the Bible, not the church • Clergy were so immoral, followers should take the cup and wafer themselves • Council of Constance condemned him as a heretic and burned him at the stake. A long revolt will follow in Bohemia

  15. 3.2B

  16. John Wycliff • Thought Christians didn’t need Church or sacraments to achieve salvation • Regarded Bible as most important source of religious authority (instead of who…) • Completed first translation of Bible into English • Outcome: • the church persecuted his followers, Lollards as heretics

  17. Jan Huss • Criticized wealth of Church • Wanted religious services conducted in the language-vernacular • Opposed sale of indulgences • Outcome: • Burned at stake for refusing to accept importance of church rituals

  18. Catherine of Siena • Popularized mysticism • Believed people could experience God through intense prayer • Outcome: • Maintained that Christians don’t need priests, rituals, or sacraments

  19. Girolamo Savonarola • Launched crusade against immoral society • Encouraged book burnings • Claimed Vatican was filled with sin and corruption Outcome was burned at the stake by angry citizens of Florence

  20. Review-IndulgencesPg. 30 in notebook • Complete this statement – The medieval Catholic Church practice of selling indulgences was like …. • (choose one or create your own) • A teacher selling grades • A referee not calling fouls on players who pay him/her • Make a simple drawing of your analogy. (full page) • Do no have to copy the yellow.

  21. 3.2C

  22. 3.2D

  23. 3.2E

  24. Martin Luther and Protestantism • Luther’s Early Years • Became monk after caught in lightening storm (Augustine order) • German monk and professor of religion • Faith was central to Christianity and the only means of salvation

  25. Don’t mess with Luther… • Selling of indulgences set him off • 1517 – Albert of Hohenzollern sought to purchase a third bishopric so he borrowed money from (guess who – think Renaissance banking family) • To pay back the money, he was given permission to sell indulgences (half would go back to Rome – what do you think they need the money for?)

  26. “As soon as gold in the basin rings, the soul to heaven sings” Johann Tetzel, Dominican Friar sent to preach the indulgence

  27. 95 Theses(1517) Nailed on the Castle Church in Wittenberg – the medieval way of challenging someone to a debate

  28. Martin Luther and Protestantism • Luther 95 Theses- October 1517 • Propositions on Indulgences raised many theological questions • Rejected idea that salvation could be achieved by good works and sale of indulgences • Indulgence was a release from penalties to be paid for sin • Criticized papal wealth

  29. The Argument…. • Why should the money go back to Rome? • With regard to purgatory – If the pope has control over purgatory, why doesn’t he just let everyone out? • His argument – the pope did not give the penalties, how can he take them away? (remember the point about “uneducated priests”?)

  30. A Quote – 95 Theses “The Roman Church has become the most licentious den of thieves……..They err who ascribe to thee the right of interpreting Scripture, for under cover of thy name they seek to set up their own wickedness in the church, and, alas, through them Satan has already made much headway under the predecessors. In short, believe none who exalt thee, believe those who humble the”

  31. The Course of the Movement • The printing press allowed for the 95 Theses to spread quickly, Luther gained support • The Dominicans wanted to charge Luther as a heretic • Pope Leo X ignored as an argument between friars

  32. Luther Continued… • Excommunicated by church in 1521 • Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) declared Luther an outlaw in 1521 in Germany at the council of Worms • “Unless I an convicted by Scripture and plain reason – I do not accept the authority of popes and councils, for they have contradicted each other – my conscience is captive to the Word of God; I cannot and I will not recant anything, for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. God help me, Amen” • -Martin Luther

  33. Ruther (I mean Luther) gets Radical • Luther engaged in public debate with John Eck who called Luther a “Hussite” • Luther claimed Hus had been unjustly condemned • In 1520, Luther penned the following: • Address to the Christian Nobility – Claimed that the secular government could reform the church (who will like that?) • On theBabylonian Captivity of the Church – attacked the sacraments • Liberty of a Christian Man – contained the heart of Lutheran belief: Grace is the sole gift of God; therefore one is save by faith alone, and the Bible is the sole source of this faith

  34. On Christian Libertyby Martin Luther “If thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised Him form the dead, thou shalt be saved; and the just shall live by faith”

  35. The Result • Luther was a wanted man and hid out in the Wartburg Castle by the Elector of Saxony • Luther translated the Bible into German while in hiding • Luther worked with Philip Melanchthon to create a new Church based on his ideas which were free from papal control

  36. Lutheranism • Reduced the seven sacraments to 2 – baptism and communion • Luther rejected the idea of transubstantiation stating that Christ was already present in the bread and wine (Eucharist) • Did away with monasticism and a celibate clergy

  37. A Happy Ending… Luther married a former nun with whom he had many children

  38. Success of the Reformation • Within thirty years of an “action of a carpenter” (the nailing of the 95 Theses – get it?) the Reformation had spread to many of the states of northern Germany, Scandinavia, England, Scotland, parts of the Netherlands, France and Switzerland

  39. Why Was It So Successful? • The ideas and church of Luther were socially conservative • Luther rejected the German Peasant’s Revolt in which peasants used Luther’s teachings of a “priesthood of all believers” to support social egalitarianism (Luther responds violently in Against the Robbing and Murderous Hordes of Peasants) • Luther encouraged the German princes to confiscate lands of the Catholic Church • Luther did not condemn princes creating state churches

  40. Politically Speaking….. • Turmoil in the Holy Roman Empire makes it difficult to stop the spread of Protestantism • Charles V, ruled a huge empire • Wars with France and the Ottoman Empire took his attention away from the growing protestant threat • In 1555, he was forced to sign the Peace of Augsburg, which granted legal recognition of Lutheranism in territories ruled by a Lutheran ruler (and the same for Catholic rulers) In other words, the princes could choose to be Lutheran or Catholic

  41. Ulrich Zwingli introduced the reformation in Switzerland • Supremacy of Scripture • Opposed indulgences, Mass, monasticism, and clerical celibacy • Protestant Thought • Confession of Augsburg- Luther and 4 basic theological issues • Salvation by Faith Alone

  42. Ulrich Zwingli * Influenced by Writings of Erasmus

  43. Religious authority rests with the Bible not the Pope • Church and community of believers • All work is sacred- serving god thorough vocation • Believed every believer was own priest- communication with god • Communion and different beliefs • Transubstantiation • Consubstantiation • Memorial • Protestantism was a reformulation of Christian beliefs • Common man and belief in God

  44. Impact of Luther Beliefs • Impacted all social classes • Followers of Luther • Preachers from Catholic Church • Peasants and reforms based on Luther • Landlords and peasant revolts • Luther and obedience to civil authority • Revolts of 1525 and land • Luther and language • Printing press • Zwingli and Calvin • Luther and New Testament • Democratized religion

  45. Luther and Impact on Women • Dignity to Women's roles in the home • Idea of marriage • Encouraged education for girls • Ended confession • Woman and the efficient wife • Germany and the Protestant Reformation • Holy Roman Empire (HRE) • Holy Roman Emperor • The Golden Bull of 1356 • Seven electors got virtual sovereignty