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Chapter 14 Reform and Renewal in the Christian Church. The Protestant Reformation The Catholic Reformation. Unit Objectives Pg. 26 in notebook Warning: it’s long; write small. VII. Protestant Reformation A. Causes of the Protestant Reformation 1. Declining prestige of the papacy*

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chapter 14 reform and renewal in the christian church

Chapter 14 Reform and Renewal in the Christian Church

The Protestant Reformation

The Catholic Reformation

unit objectives pg 26 in notebook warning it s long write small
Unit ObjectivesPg. 26 in notebookWarning: it’s long; write small
  • VII. Protestant Reformation
  • A. Causes of the Protestant Reformation
    • 1. Declining prestige of the papacy*
    • 2. Early critics of the Church*
    • 3. Corrupt church practices (e.g., simony, pluralism, absenteeism, clerical ignorance)
    • 4. Renaissance humanism (e.g., Erasmus)
unit objectives
Unit Objectives
  • B. Martin Luther (1483–1546)
    • 1. 95 Theses (1517)
    • 2. Impact of Lutheranism on women
    • 3. Luther’s views on new sects and peasantry
  • C. Calvinism
    • 1. John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536)
    • 2. Tenets: predestination, the elect, Protestant work ethic
    • 3. Strict theocracy in Geneva
    • 4. Spread of Calvinism
objectives continued
Objectives Continued
  • D. Anabaptists (the “left wing” of the Protestant Reformation)
  • E. Reformation in England
    • 1. John Wycliffe, the Lollards*
    • 2. Henry VIII and the creation of the Church of England
    • 3. Mary Tudor (“Bloody Mary”) (1553-58)
    • 4. Elizabeth I (1558–1603)
objectives end
Objectives -End
  • VIII. Catholic Reformation
    • A. Causes
    • B. Council of Trent (1545-63)
    • C. New religious orders
    • D. Peace of Augsburg (1555)
problems facing the church on the eve of the reformation review
Problems Facing the Church on the Eve of the Reformation (Review)
  • The Black Death gave rise to anticlericalism (why?)
  • The Great Schism (why?)
  • The rise of “pietism” – a notion of a direct relationship between individuals and God (why?) Come on – You can do it!
  • The growth of the power of monarchs (why?)
The Condition of the Church 1400-1517
    • Declining Prestige
      • The Great Schism and the Babylonian Captivity
      • Secular humanist and moral corruption
    • 16th Century- Signs of Disorder
      • Critics wanted reform (Moral and Administrative)
        • Clerical immorality
        • Education of clergy
        • Ordination Standards
        • Absenteeism
        • Pluralism
a word about the printing press
A Word About the Printing Press
  • The search for new printing technology increased as more universities were built in the late middle ages
  • Block printing made its way to Europe from Asia, but wasn’t efficient
  • German Johannes Guttenberg given credit for printing Bibles between 1452 and 1453
impact of the printing press
Impact of the Printing Press
  • Many Renaissance ideas were spread, including Humanism and individualism
  • An increase in the number of books led to a significant increase in literacy in the 16th century
  • Ideas of “Christian Humanism” spread, having an impact on society, politics and religion (you see where we are going with this)
  • A theory – “Few inventions in human history have had as great an impact as the printing press”
Prelates and Popes were often members of the nobility and lived in splendor
      • Moral corruption
  • Signs of Strength (late 15th and early 16th centuries)
    • Europe remained deeply religious
    • Parish clergy brought spiritual help to the people
    • Organization to minister to poor
      • The Brethren of the Common Life
        • Making religion personal
      • The Imitation of Christ
        • Simple way of life
    • Lateran council 1512-1527 (Julius II)
other problems
Other Problems
  • Poorly educated clergy ( a plus for Luther, by the way)
  • Simony and pluralism
  • Indulgences
  • The extravagance of the Church
  • Immoral clergy
preview protestant reformation pg 28 in notebook
Preview: Protestant ReformationPg. 28 in notebook



1. Define the root word.

As we take notes today, write down examples of the root word in action.

Do not copy the yellow parts.

  • 1. Define the root word.
  • As we take notes today, write down examples of the root word in action.
  • Do not copy the yellow parts.
early movements of the late middle ages pre luther
Early Movements of the Late Middle Ages (Pre-Luther)
  • John Wycliffe of England 1329-1384
    • Questioned church wealth, transubstantiation, the practice of penance, indulgences
    • Urged followers (Lollards) to read the Bible
  • Jan Hus of Bohemia 1369-1415
    • Rector of University of Prague
    • Authority lies in the Bible, not the church
    • Clergy were so immoral, followers should take the cup and wafer themselves
    • Council of Constance condemned him as a heretic and burned him at the stake. A long revolt will follow in Bohemia
john wycliff
John Wycliff
  • Thought Christians didn’t need Church or sacraments to achieve salvation
  • Regarded Bible as most important source of religious authority (instead of who…)
  • Completed first translation of Bible into English
  • Outcome:
    • the church persecuted his followers, Lollards as heretics
jan huss
Jan Huss
  • Criticized wealth of Church
  • Wanted religious services conducted in the language-vernacular
  • Opposed sale of indulgences
  • Outcome:
    • Burned at stake for refusing to accept importance of church rituals
catherine of siena
Catherine of Siena
  • Popularized mysticism
  • Believed people could experience God through intense prayer
  • Outcome:
    • Maintained that Christians don’t need priests, rituals, or sacraments
girolamo savonarola
Girolamo Savonarola
  • Launched crusade against immoral society
  • Encouraged book burnings
  • Claimed Vatican was filled with sin and corruption


was burned at the stake by angry citizens of Florence

review indulgences pg 30 in notebook
Review-IndulgencesPg. 30 in notebook
  • Complete this statement – The medieval Catholic Church practice of selling indulgences was like ….
  • (choose one or create your own)
    • A teacher selling grades
    • A referee not calling fouls on players who pay him/her
  • Make a simple drawing of your analogy. (full page)
  • Do no have to copy the yellow.
Martin Luther and Protestantism
    • Luther’s Early Years
      • Became monk after caught in lightening storm (Augustine order)
      • German monk and professor of religion
      • Faith was central to Christianity and the only means of salvation
don t mess with luther
Don’t mess with Luther…
  • Selling of indulgences set him off
  • 1517 – Albert of Hohenzollern sought to purchase a third bishopric so he borrowed money from (guess who – think Renaissance banking family)
  • To pay back the money, he was given permission to sell indulgences (half would go back to Rome – what do you think they need the money for?)
as soon as gold in the basin rings the soul to heaven sings

“As soon as gold in the basin rings, the soul to heaven sings”

Johann Tetzel, Dominican Friar sent to preach the indulgence

95 theses 1517

95 Theses(1517)

Nailed on the Castle Church in Wittenberg – the medieval way of challenging someone to a debate

Martin Luther and Protestantism
    • Luther 95 Theses- October 1517
      • Propositions on Indulgences raised many theological questions
      • Rejected idea that salvation could be achieved by good works and sale of indulgences
        • Indulgence was a release from penalties to be paid for sin
      • Criticized papal wealth
the argument
The Argument….
  • Why should the money go back to Rome?
  • With regard to purgatory – If the pope has control over purgatory, why doesn’t he just let everyone out?
  • His argument – the pope did not give the penalties, how can he take them away?

(remember the point about “uneducated priests”?)

a quote 95 theses

A Quote – 95 Theses

“The Roman Church has become the most licentious den of thieves……..They err who ascribe to thee the right of interpreting Scripture, for under cover of thy name they seek to set up their own wickedness in the church, and, alas, through them Satan has already made much headway under the predecessors. In short, believe none who exalt thee, believe those who humble the”

the course of the movement
The Course of the Movement
  • The printing press allowed for the 95 Theses to spread quickly, Luther gained support
  • The Dominicans wanted to charge Luther as a heretic
  • Pope Leo X ignored as an argument between friars
Luther Continued…
  • Excommunicated by church in 1521
  • Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) declared Luther an outlaw in 1521 in Germany at the council of Worms
  • “Unless I an convicted by Scripture and plain reason – I do not accept the authority of popes and councils, for they have contradicted each other – my conscience is captive to the Word of God; I cannot and I will not recant anything, for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. God help me, Amen”
  • -Martin Luther
ruther i mean luther gets radical
Ruther (I mean Luther) gets Radical
  • Luther engaged in public debate with John Eck who called Luther a “Hussite”
  • Luther claimed Hus had been unjustly condemned
  • In 1520, Luther penned the following:
    • Address to the Christian Nobility – Claimed that the secular government could reform the church (who will like that?)
    • On theBabylonian Captivity of the Church – attacked the sacraments
    • Liberty of a Christian Man – contained the heart of Lutheran belief: Grace is the sole gift of God; therefore one is save by faith alone, and the Bible is the sole source of this faith
on christian liberty by martin luther

On Christian Libertyby Martin Luther

“If thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised Him form the dead, thou shalt be saved; and the just shall live by faith”

the result
The Result
  • Luther was a wanted man and hid out in the Wartburg Castle by the Elector of Saxony
  • Luther translated the Bible into German while in hiding
  • Luther worked with Philip Melanchthon to create a new Church based on his ideas which were free from papal control
  • Reduced the seven sacraments to 2 – baptism and communion
  • Luther rejected the idea of transubstantiation stating that Christ was already present in the bread and wine (Eucharist)
  • Did away with monasticism and a celibate clergy
a happy ending

A Happy Ending…

Luther married a former nun with whom he had many children

success of the reformation
Success of the Reformation
  • Within thirty years of an “action of a carpenter” (the nailing of the 95 Theses – get it?) the Reformation had spread to many of the states of northern Germany, Scandinavia, England, Scotland, parts of the Netherlands, France and Switzerland
why was it so successful
Why Was It So Successful?
  • The ideas and church of Luther were socially conservative
    • Luther rejected the German Peasant’s Revolt in which peasants used Luther’s teachings of a “priesthood of all believers” to support social egalitarianism (Luther responds violently in Against the Robbing and Murderous Hordes of Peasants)
    • Luther encouraged the German princes to confiscate lands of the Catholic Church
    • Luther did not condemn princes creating state churches
politically speaking
Politically Speaking…..
  • Turmoil in the Holy Roman Empire makes it difficult to stop the spread of Protestantism
    • Charles V, ruled a huge empire
    • Wars with France and the Ottoman Empire took his attention away from the growing protestant threat
    • In 1555, he was forced to sign the Peace of Augsburg, which granted legal recognition of Lutheranism in territories ruled by a Lutheran ruler (and the same for Catholic rulers) In other words, the princes could choose to be Lutheran or Catholic
Ulrich Zwingli introduced the reformation in Switzerland
    • Supremacy of Scripture
    • Opposed indulgences, Mass, monasticism, and clerical celibacy
  • Protestant Thought
    • Confession of Augsburg- Luther and 4 basic theological issues
    • Salvation by Faith Alone
Ulrich Zwingli

* Influenced by Writings of Erasmus

Religious authority rests with the Bible not the Pope
  • Church and community of believers
  • All work is sacred- serving god thorough vocation
  • Believed every believer was own priest- communication with god
  • Communion and different beliefs
    • Transubstantiation
    • Consubstantiation
    • Memorial
  • Protestantism was a reformulation of Christian beliefs
  • Common man and belief in God
Impact of Luther Beliefs
    • Impacted all social classes
      • Followers of Luther
      • Preachers from Catholic Church
      • Peasants and reforms based on Luther
        • Landlords and peasant revolts
        • Luther and obedience to civil authority
        • Revolts of 1525 and land
      • Luther and language
        • Printing press
        • Zwingli and Calvin
        • Luther and New Testament
        • Democratized religion
Luther and Impact on Women
      • Dignity to Women's roles in the home
      • Idea of marriage
      • Encouraged education for girls
      • Ended confession
      • Woman and the efficient wife
  • Germany and the Protestant Reformation
    • Holy Roman Empire (HRE)
      • Holy Roman Emperor
      • The Golden Bull of 1356
        • Seven electors got virtual sovereignty
The Rise of the Habsburg Dynasty
    • Habsburg and European Unity
      • Maximilian I of Austria and Mary Burgundy in 1477
    • Charles V
  • Politics and Luther's Beliefs
    • Nationalism and Germany
    • Anti-Italian Papacy
    • Luther and Patriotism
    • Habsburg Valois Wars (30 Years War)
      • Protestantism
      • Political Fragmentation
      • Peace of Augsburg 1555 and Charles V
        • German Princes and religion
ulrich zwingli 1484 1531
Ulrich Zwingli1484-1531
  • Had an impact in Zurich, Switzerland after the 95 Theses
  • Ideas were similar to Luther’s, with exceptions:
    • Denial of all sacraments
    • Last Supper a memorial to Christ, and did not include the presence of Christ
    • Led social reform
    • Was killed by Swiss Catholics in battle
john calvin 1509 1564
John Calvin1509-1564
  • Born in France but moved to Switzerland
  • In his Institutes of the Christian Religion, Calvin asserts the idea of “predestination”
  • A strict disciplinarian, he instituted a strict moral code in Geneva in which he closed the taverns, made fortune-telling illegal
  • “Calvinism” began to spread with mixed results: It became the “established church” in Switzerland, but was practiced by a small minority of “Huguenots” in France
  • Helped save the protestant reformation against a new, aggressive catholic counter-reformation
institutes of christian religion by john calvin

Institutes of Christian Religionby John Calvin

Predestination we call the eternal decree of God, by which he has determined in himself, what he would have become of every individual……..For they are not all created with the same destiny; but eternal life is foreordained for some, and eternal damnation for others…”

The Growth of the Protestant Reformation
    • Northern Europe 1555
    • Calvinism
      • Predestination
      • “A City that was a church”- Geneva (Theocracy)
      • Institutes of Christian Religion
        • Religious Law of Geneva
        • Church and State
      • Work Ethic
      • Most influential form of Protestantism
The Anabaptists
    • Adult baptism (denied child baptism)
    • Adopts old ways of multiple wives
    • Tolerance
    • Pacifism
    • Church and State
    • Progressive for time
    • Quakers, the Baptists, and Congregationalists
  • The English Reformation
    • Lollards in the 5th century
    • William Tyndale- 1525
    • Thomas Wolsey
      • Wealth and corruption of the Clergy
    • Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon
The Protestant Reformation in England

Cardinal Woolsey

Thomas Cranmer

Catherine of Aragon

Anne Boleyn

Henry VIII

english reformation
English Reformation
  • More political than religious
  • Henry VIII originally condemned Luther, however the “King’s Great Matter” caused him to think twice:
    • Henry attempted to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon of Spain, who he blamed her for his lack of a male heir. He also wanted to marry the virtuous Anne Boleyn, who he had fallen in love with. The Church refused
    • In 1529 he began the “Reformation Parliament” in a slow attempt to get increased authority over religious matters.
    • In April of 1533 Henry began to act quickly to cut off links with the papacy (he had to, by the way, the virtuous “Anne” was pregnant and he was a bigamist). Parliament enacted the “Act in Restraint of Appeals” which gave Henry jurisdiction over spiritual cases, taking the job away from the Pope, and soon granted himself an annulment
    • In September, Elizabeth was born (was it Anne’s fault?)
act of supremacy 1534
Act of Supremacy, 1534
  • The English Reformation resulted in the King of England becoming the Supreme Head of what became known as the Church of England (Anglican Church), which was really the catholic church without the pope
  • Under Henry’s only son, Edward VI, the reformation became more “protestant”
  • Under Mary, England restored ties to the papacy and persecuted/killed protestants
  • Under Elizabeth, the Church of England was restored with a more tolerant protestant approach
Pope Clement VII and Marriage
    • Papal infallibility
    • Marriage to Catherine and Henry’s brother
  • Archbishop Cranmer and divorce
    • Divorce by law and rule of law
  • Acts of Supremacy and England
  • Henry and Church in England
  • Dissolution of the Monasteries
    • Sale of Church Land
  • Nationalization of the Church
  • Edward VI
  • Mary Tudor (Bloody Mary)
  • Elizabeth I and Church of England
Under Elizabeth, the Church of England was restored with a more tolerant protestant approach
  • Moderation of Catholic and Protestant ways even under pressure from different factions in country.
Church of Scotland
    • Ireland
      • Catholic vs. Protestantism
      • Northern Ireland and England (modern)
    • Norway, Sweden, and Denmark
      • Monarchy and reformation
  • The Catholic and Counter Reformation
    • The Catholic Reformation
    • The Counter Reformation
    • Institutional Reform
      • The Popes- politics and pleasures
      • Catholic Councils and Popes power
the catholic counter reformation 1530 s
The Catholic (Counter-) Reformation – 1530’s
  • Though slow-moving, it was the Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation


  • Goals:
    • Stop church abuses, primarily simony and indulgences
    • A rededication to Christian principles and a standardization of church beliefs
    • Restore the prestige of the Church, bring back followers and regain papal land claims
    • Wipe out Protestantism
The Council of Trent (1545-1563)
    • Pope Paul III
      • Reconciliation with Protestants
      • International Politics
    • Papal Authority
      • Reform
      • Spiritual renewal
    • Rejected Sale of Indulgences
    • Limits Simony and Pluralism
    • Clerical training and education
    • Emphasis on preaching
the council of trent 1545 1563
The Council of Trent1545-1563
  • Index of Prohibited Books
  • Papal Inquisition was revived
  • Endorsed Catholic teachings (rejecting the ideas of Protestantism), especially that of “faith and goods works”, not just faith alone will get you salvation
  • Supported “baroque” art forms versus that of the late Renaissance “mannerists”
New Religious Orders
    • Ursuline Order of nuns
    • Society of Jesus
      • Jesuits
  • The Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office
    • Pope Paul III
    • Roman Inquisition
  • Any “Late Renaissance painters” may also be considered “mannerists” or “baroque”

or both

the society of jesus jesuits 1540
The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) 1540
  • Organized by Ignatius Loyola, they Contributed to the success of the Catholic Reformation
  • They declared themselves a teaching order and worked as Catholic missionaries throughout Europe, including Lutheran strongholds such as Poland
  • Came up with a plausible argument to Luther, suggesting that even if there was not a Bible, there would still be the spirit:
spiritual exercises by ignatius loyola

Spiritual Exercisesby Ignatius Loyola

“…for I believe that linking Christ our Lord the bridegroom and His Bride the Church, there is one in the same Spirit, ruling and guiding us for our souls’ good. Four our Holy Mother the church is guided and ruled by the same Spirit, the Lord who gave the Ten Commandments”

was the catholic reformation successful
Was the Catholic Reformation Successful?
  • Goals:
    • Stop church abuses, primarily simony and indulgences (yes)
    • A rededication to Christian principles and a standardization of church beliefs (yes)
    • Restore the prestige of the Church, bring back followers and regain papal land claims (yes)
    • Wipe out Protestantism (what do you think?)
  • The catholic Church has a tradition of adjusting to changing conditions
    • Reform Movement of the High Middle Ages (St. Benedict, Pope Gregory VII, Cluniastic Movement)
    • Council of Trent (Pope Paul III, Pope Innocent XI)
    • First Vatican Council 1870
    • Second Vatican Council 1962
    • More changes in to come? Possible Changes?
non religious causes for the protestant reformation
Non-Religious Causes for the Protestant Reformation
  • Socially, people of lower status in society felt the Reformation gave them equality in the “eyes of God” and seized the opportunity to strike out an oppressive social order
  • Politically, Princes saw the Reformation as an opportunity to seize church land and power
  • Economically, money that went to enhance the papal treasury would now stay at home
non religious effects
Non-Religious Effects
  • Socially, although women play a prominent role early on, women will not gain much from the reformation. As Protestant religions become more formal, male religious leaders narrowed their role to the home and discouraged them from being church leaders. In Family matters:
    • To protect the family, fidelity was expected of both spouses. Divorce was not acceptable in the Catholic church, while in Protestantism there was a mutual right to divorce and remarry.
    • A man’s role was to be the breadwinner, women’s first priority was her home. Women were not to engage in social or political activities and if she suffered it was because of “Eve”
    • Prostitution houses were common and civil authorities in both Catholic and Protestant countries licensed houses of public prostitution
non religious effects cont
Non-religious effects (cont.)
  • Intellectually, the Reformation will lay the groundwork for the enlightenment and scientific revolution. After all, if church goers themselves begin to question beliefs of the church and authority in general, why shouldn’t others be able to do so? Also, with the closing of convents, upper-class women lost a venue from which to showcase their intellect and talents
  • Politically, as church power declined, monarchs gained strength leading to the development of modern nation-states.