Lesson # 3. (Chapter 19). Blood-1. Objectives:. 1- To describe the general characteristics of blood and its major functions. 2- To describe the types of blood cells. 3- To describe the functions of red blood cells.
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1- To describe the general characteristics of blood and its major functions.2- To describe the types of blood cells.
3- To describe the functions of red blood cells.
4- To list the blood types and explain the importance and basis of blood typing.
5- To discuss the reaction sequences responsible of blood clotting.
The muscular pump that makes blood to circulate through the blood vessels.
The Cardiovascular System
The plumbing that ensure the proper routing of blood to its destination.
It transports substances from place to place in the body.
It is the liquid medium in which these substance travel.
Functions of Blood
1- Transport of dissolved substances
2- Regulation of pH and ions
Blood eliminates deficiencies or excesses of ions. It also absorbs and neutralizes acids generated by active tissues.
3- Restriction of fluid losses at injury sites
Blood contains enzymes and other substances that initiate the process of clotting.
4- Defense against toxins and pathogens
Blood transports white blood cells that migrate into other tissues to fight infections and to remove debris. Blood also contains and delivers the antibodies.
6- Stabilization of body temperature
Blood absorbs the heat generated by active skeletal muscles and distributes it to other tissues. If body temperature increases, the heat is lost through the skin blood vessels. If body temperature is too low, the warm blood is directed to the brain and other temperature-sensitive organs.
Formed elements (37-54%)
Functions: Major contributors to osmotic pressure of plasma. Transport lipids and steroids hormones.
It is also made in the liver.
Functions:Essential component of clotting system.
They are produce by white blood cells (lymphocytes) and by the liver.
Functions: Antibodies. Transport ions, hormones and lipids.
The Composition of Plasma
Plasma is 92% water in which are dissolved proteins and a mixture of other materials (hormones, nutrients, wastes and electrolytes).
Regulatory proteins (< 1%)
Enzymes, proenzymes and hormones.
They are ions produce by the dissociation of salts in water: Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, HCO3-, HPO4-, SO42-
A normal ion composition is essential for vital cellular activities.
Ions contribute to osmotic pressure of body fluids.
Lipids (fatty acids, cholesterol, glycerides), carbohy-drates (glucose), and aminoacids.
They are used for ATP production, growth and cell maintenance.
They are carried to sites of breakdown or excretion.
Ex: Urea, uric acid, creatinine, bilirubin, ammonium ions.
CO2 rich blood
CO2 poor blood
BOP > BHP
BHP > BOP
1- Blood Hydrostatic Pressure (BHP) pushes water outside the blood vessels
2- Blood Osmotic Pressure (BOP) pulls water back to the blood vessels
Blood Osmotic Pressure of the blood depends on:
1- Electrolytes ( mainly sodium ions)
2- Proteins (mainly albumin)
If the osmolarity of the blood is too high, the blood stream absorbs too much water, the blood volume raises, and blood pressure increases.
Ex: Patients with high blood pressure must reduce the intake of salt in the diet.
If the osmolarity of blood drops too low, too much water remains in the tissues and they become swollen (edematous).
Red blood cells constitute 99.9% of all the formed cell in blood.
Erythrocytes lack of nucleus and other organelles and live only an average of 120 days.
They are biconcave discs, thick in the outer edges and thin in the center.
They contain the hemoglobin, which transport O2 and CO2.
Hemoglobin is a protein that gives the RBCs their color and name. Each RBC contains about 280 million molecules of hemoglobin (33% of the cytoplasm).
Hb + O2
Each RBC contains about 280 million molecules of hemoglobin.
Each RBC potentially can carry more than a billion molecules of O2 (280 x 4)
Macrophage in spleen, liver, bone marrow
Fe2+ is transported in circulation by transferrin
120 days average life span (90%)
Indirect or unconjugated bilirubin. It increases in accelerated erythrocyte hemolysis (erythroblastosis fetalis, hemolytic anemia), and hepatocellular disease
Excreted in bile
Absorbed into the circulation
If is called hemoglobinuria
Direct or conjugated bilirubin.
It increases in obstruction of the biliary ducts (cancer of pancreas’ head), gallstones or hepatocellular diseases such as cirrhosis or hepatitis.
Eliminated in urine
Eliminated in feces
When iron is released into the blood stream, it binds to transferrin, a plasma protein
Excess transferrins, are removed in the liver and spleen and the iron is stored in two special proteins-iron complex: ferritin and hemosiderin.
Plasma protein that transports iron
Protein-iron complex that stores iron
Protein-iron complex that stores iron
Erythrocytes have no repair mechanisms because they lack of nucleus and other organelles. They live only an average of 120 days.
Erythrocyte production is called erythropoiesis, which normally takes 3 to 5 days.
White blood cells (leucopoiesis)
Myeloid stem cell
Erythropoiesis takes place in the red bone marrow.
Mature Red Blood Cell
Synthesis of hemoglobin (80%).
Erythropoiesis is stimulated by:
Blood types and transfusion compatibility are a matter of interaction between antigens and antibodies.
They are foreign substances that are able to trigger an immune response. Most of antigens are proteins.
They are proteins produced by cells of the immune system, which are able to recognize an interact with the corresponding antigens.
Antigen-antibody reaction is specific, meaning that the antibodies can recognize only the corresponding antigens.
The plasma membrane of the cells contains glycoproteins (surface markers) on the outer surface that can act as antigens. That means that they can trigger an immune response and can interact with the corresponding antibodies.
Surface markers are genetically determined and are different in every person. They are responsible for transplant rejection.
Transplant rejection is a process in which a transplant recipient's immune system attacks the transplanted organ or tissue.
Blood types and transfusion compatibility are a matter of interaction between plasma antibodies and surface antigens in the erythrocytes.
The plasma membrane of the erythrocytes contains glycoproteins on the outer surface that can act as antigens. That means that they can interact with the corresponding antibodies.
ABO Blood Group
Type A B
Blood Type (Phenotype)
Blood Type (Phenotype)
Plasma contains antibodies against surface antigens that are not present on self cells. That is why foreign tissues are rejected by the immune system.
Plasma contains antibodies against surface antigens that are not present on self red blood cells.
Neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies
Anti-A and anti-B antibodies
When antibodies attack, the foreign cells agglutinate (clump together). This process is called agglutination.
The antigens that determine the blood types are called agglutinogens, and the corresponding antibodies are called agglutinins
The Rh blood group is named for the rhesus monkey, the animal in which the Rh antigens were discovered in 1940.
This group include numerous antigens (C, D, E). Antigen D is by far the most reactive and it is used for Rh typing.
Genotypes DD or Dd
No anti-D antibodies
No anti-D antibodies
The agglutinated RBCs lodge in smaller blood vessels and cut of the blood flow to vital organs.
type A donor
Free hemoglobin can block the kidney tubules and produce death from acute renal failure within a week or so.
block small vessels
(a) First pregnancy
(b) Between pregnancies
(c) Second pregnancy
Rh antibodies attack fetal blood causing severe anemia and toxic brain syndrome (Hemolytic Disease of the New Born).