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Grammar Toolkit. Auxiliary verbs. What are auxiliary verbs?. Grammar Toolkit. Auxiliary verbs. A non-finite verb can become a finite verb with the help of an auxiliary or “helping” verb. Auxiliary verbs give the resulting verb its tense. Let’s start with the present participle looking .

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Grammar Toolkit

Auxiliaryverbs

What are

auxiliary verbs?

slide2

Grammar Toolkit

Auxiliaryverbs

A non-finite verb can become a finite verb with the help of an auxiliary or “helping” verb. Auxiliary verbs give the resulting verb its tense. Let’s start with the present participle looking.

The auxiliary verb ismakes the verb complete and gives it a tense (present tense.)

looking

Mickey

is

The complete verb can now have a subject.

By itself, it doesn’t have a tense and can’t have a subject.

The complete finite verb becomes is looking.

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Grammar Toolkit

Auxiliaryverbs

Auxiliary verbs are forms of the verbs have, do and be. Choose an auxiliary verb foreach non-finite verb. What tense does the complete verb get?

have has do does did be am is are was were being been

I ______ cleaning.

She _______sure.

We to go.

Yuki and Sanjcoming.

I know.

present

am

past

was

have

present

present

are

past

did

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Grammar Toolkit

Auxiliaryverbs

Modal verbs are a type of auxiliary verb. They help a non-finite verb express possibility, obligation or permission. Choose an auxiliary verb for each non-finite verb. What tense does the complete verb get?

can could may might mustshall should will would

we dance?

You eat.

Mia run fast.

Jack go.

They know.

future

Shall

present

must

present

can

future

will

present

might

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Grammar Toolkit

Auxiliaryverbs

A main verb plus one or more auxiliary verbs makes a verb phrase.

may

have

been

played

Verb phrases can become quite long. What verb phrases can you make with these auxiliary verbs?

been is will was have had

Carlos playing.

Carlos playing.

Carlosplaying.

Carlos playing.

is

was

hadbeen

willhavebeen

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Grammar Toolkit

Auxiliaryverbs

Many subjects and their auxiliary verbs arewritten as contractions. Contractions are words or phrases with an apostrophe to show missing letters.

I’m home. = I amhome. Cristina’shere. = Cristina ishere.

Many negative verb phrases are also written as contractions.

She hasn’tsold it. = She has notsold it. He didn’tarrive. = He did notarrive.

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Grammar Toolkit

Auxiliaryverbs

Do you know what these contractions mean?

I’ve

you’re

I’d

it is

they are

cannot

do not

should not

won’t

hadn’t

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Grammar Toolkit

Auxiliaryverbs

  • Verbs have different forms.
  • A finite verb is a verb with a subject and tense. A non-finite verb doesn’t have a subject or tense and cannot be the main verb in a sentence.
  • Non-finite verbs can become finite verbs with the help of auxiliary verbs (forms of the verbs have, doand be), including modal verbs.
  • Adding one or more auxiliary verbs to a main verb forms a verb phrase.
  • Many subjects and their auxiliary verbs are written as contractions (e.g. she’d = she had), as are negative verb phrases (e.g. don’t = do not).
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Grammar Toolkit

Auxiliaryverbs

The End