Adverbs and Prepositions. Adverbs. Adverbs describe verbs. Adverbs tell How? , W hen? , Where? the action occurs. How? When? Where? Fast tomorrow here Hard later inside together again far Happily often upstairs Quietly first downtown
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Adverbs • Adverbs describe verbs. • Adverbs tellHow?,When?,Where? the action occurs. • How?When?Where? • Fast tomorrow here • Hard later inside • together again far • Happily often upstairs • Quietly first downtown • Secretly next somewhere • Slowly then toward
Adverbs • To identify adverbs correctly, simply ask if the word tells How? or When? or Where? • If the answer is “yes,” then that word is an adverb. • The scientist worked carefully on the experiment. (how?) • You will receive the letter tomorrow. (when?) • He ran inside. (where)
Comparing One Syllable Adverbs • Adverbs have special forms for comparisons: • One syllable adverbs add –er or –est • soon sooner soonest • fast faster fastest • Example: • The letter came sooner than I expected. • He ran fastest of all.
Comparing Two Syllable Adverbs • Most two syllable adverbs form their comparisons by using more and most or less and least: • Oftenmore/less oftenmost/least often • That happens more often than not. • Such events happen less often now. • recently more recentlymost recently • Archeologists have most recently discovered Pharaoh's tomb in Egypt.
Summary of Comparison of Adverbs • One syllable adverbs add –er or –est in the comparison. • More than syllable adverbs add the words more and most or less and least depending on the comparison. • When comparing two things, use –er, more, less. • When comparing three or more things, use –est, most, or least.
Adjective or Adverb? • Adjectives answer the following questions: • Which one? • What kind? • How Many? • Adverbs answer the following questions: • When? • Where? • How?
Adjective or Adverb? • Example: • That was a bad joke they played on the man. (answers the question what kind of a joke---adjective) • The program was badly printed. (answers the question how It was printed---adverb)
Adjective or Adverb? • Examples: • The baseball team gave a good performance. (answers the question “what kind” of a performance---adjective) • They played especially well during the ninth inning. (answers the question “how” they played---adverb)
Adjective or Adverb? • Use well when it refers to health: • Example: • He feels well. • Sue doesn’t seem well. • Note: Well can be used as an adjective or as an adverb. However, only use well when it refers to health.
Summary of Adjectives • Adjectives must modify nouns and pronouns. • Adjectives answer the questions: Which one? What kind? How Many?
Summary of Adverbs • Adverbs must modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. • Adverbs answer the following questions: • When? • Where? • How? Note: When you use well to refer to health, well is an adjective---He feels well (not good).
Adverb or Adjective? • Use words such as good, bad, sure, real, slow are used as adjectives to modify nouns or pronouns. • Use words such as well, badly, surely, really, slowly as adverbs. • Use well when it refers to health. • Memorize the questions adjectives answer. • Memorize the questions adverbs answer.
Negatives • Words that mean “no” or “not” are negatives. • She has no money left. • There is none left. • Negatives can also be contracted. • N’t is a contraction for not: • isn’t aren’t doesn’t wouldn’t • Not is always an adverb.
Examples of Negatives • not nowhere nobody • never nothing no one • Some people want to use two negatives: • There isn’t no one at home today. (incorrect) • There isn’t anyone at home today. (correct) • We haven’t never tried that before. (incorrect) • We have never tried that before. (correct)
Summary of Negatives • A negative is a word that means “no” or “not.” • To contract a verb and a negative; simply add n’t to the verb. • Not is always an adverb. • A sentence should only have one negative. • Using double negatives is incorrect.
Prepositions • A preposition is a word that shows the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and another word in a sentence. • Example: • The dog ran with the man. • The dog ran from the man. • The dog ran at the man. • The dog ran after the man • Note: The relationship between dog and man changes when the preposition changes.
Prepositional Phrase • A prepositional phrase always begins with a preposition. • A prepositional phrase always ends with a noun or a pronoun. • That noun or pronoun is identified as “the object of the preposition.” • A prepositional phrase can have more than one object. • A prepositional phrase describes another word in the sentence.
Prepositional Phrase • Since prepositional phrases describe another word in the sentence, it is an adverb if it answers the questions When?,Where? or How? • Examples: • I will see you again on Thursday. (when?) • We students will meet in the auditorium. (where?) • We lined up in single file. (how?)
Prepositional Phrase • Prepositional phrases can appear anywhere in a sentence. • A sentence can have more than one prepositional phrase. • Example: • On Monday we’ll meet again. • We’ll meet again on Monday. • We’ll meet on Monday again.
Pronouns in Prepositional Phrases • A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or a pronoun. • That noun or pronoun is identified as the object of the preposition. • When the object of the prepositional phrase is a pronoun, use the objective pronoun. (me, you, him, her, us, you, or them)
Pronouns in Prepositional Phrases • The object pronouns are • SingularPlural • me us • you you • him, her, it them • He gave the letter to Bill and me. • We divided the money with Tom and him. • He pointed his finger at Sue and us.
Prepositional Phrases • Prepositions without an object can be used as an adverb: • Example: • He ran inside. • He fell down. • He turned the light on. • He worked outside. • Note: With an object, the preposition becomes a prepositional phrase.
Summary • Prepositional phrases begin with a preposition and end with a noun or a pronoun. • That noun or pronoun is identified as the object of the preposition. • If the object of the preposition is a pronoun, use the objective pronoun. • Prepositions without an object can become adverbs. • Adverbs tell how? or when? or where? an action happened.