The French Revolution 1789-1791 1792-1794 NAPOLEON
What did the Enlightenment teach us? • Natural Rights ALL people should have them • Government should PROTECT the rights of the people • Government should not be centralized instead divided • Social and Economic inequality is not the only option
France 1789 • 3 estates(classes) of society(Old Regime) a throwback to feudal society…lords, peasants, you get the idea • Paris if overcrowded shortages of food
Meeting of Estates General • Assembly of Representatives from all 3 estates • 1 vote each (2-1) • Hasn’t met for 175 years • Is the estates-general a product of the enlightenment? Why or why not?
National Assembly • Bourgeoisie want change formation of the National Assembly • All meet together, EVERYONE has a vote advantage Third Estate • WOAH…pretty enlightened idea! • End of absolute monarchy • 1st challenge: Tennis Court Oath
Louis XVI makes his move… • Fear sets in Louis hires mercenaries(Swiss) to protect himself • Why not use French soldiers?? • French citizens think the worst paranoia sets in what do the peasants do?
The Great Fear • Peasants raid countryside manors(homes of the nobles) • Purpose: • Destroy feudal records • Burn homes and fields • Nobles fear that the old regime is changing
Declaration of Rights of Man • Truly “enlightened” document • What does that mean? • Natural Rights • Women excluded Olympe de Gouges(no respect)
Constitution of 1791 • Drafted by the National Assembly • Created a limited monarchy • Gave Legislative Assembly power to make laws • Emigres(nobles who fled) v sans-culottes(workers)
Bread shortages = Bread Riots • Capture of the King and Queen • Imprisonment at Tuillerries Palace
The Coalition • Britain, Spain, Austria, Holland, and Prussia join to fight revolutionary France • Why would they want to help Louis XVI put down the rebellion? • Enlightenment catches on…
National Convention • Newest governing body in France(1791) • Followed the September Massacres radical violent killings committed by angry mobs • King is deposed need a new assembly
Jacobins • Radicals that emerge as leaders of the Revolution some were bourgeoisie • Revolution is lacking order and stability • Jacobin Club feels they are the answer • Jacobins tried Louis XVI for treason and had him executed by guillotine
Robespierre, Committee, Reign of Terror • Robespierre saw the revolution was losing its ideals(beliefs) • He seized control of the revolution to bring order and stability Committee of Public Safety • Goal: Put to death “enemies of the republic” • Instead led to the “Reign of Terror” widespread chaos and killing
Changes… • French people grew tired of the chaos and executed Robespierre • Drafted a new plan of government a lot less revolutionary than previously • Government favored the wealthy social unrest is brewing again