Modernism and Joseph Conrad. The Scream ( 1893) Edvard Munch . What do we know about Modernism? . Joseph Conrad’s context. Wars political uprisings, colonial rule and unrest The ebb and flow of economic fortunes ALL
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PLAY A PART IN THE LITERATURE OF THE LATE 19TH and EARLY 20TH CENTURIES.
3 December, 1857-3 August 1924
Along with England’s increased industrialisation and mechanisation, women’s inequality was a prominent issue.
Europeans had long held that their view of the world was superior—a view based on transcendent truths and sanctioned by God.
Lyell observed geological formations that challenged the then standard view, based on theological teachings that the earth was about 4,000 years old.
His Principals of Geology (1830-33) would revolutionise scientific enquiry, in a reassessment of the earth’s age.
Darwin’s scientific work and mission aboard The Beagle would prove even more revolutionary.
Darwin’s discoveries in the Galapagos Islands grew into his theory of natural selection.
Darwin published his findings in The Origin of the Species (1859).
The survival of the fittest’--Term invented by Herbert Spencer in Principles of Biology (1864) to describe Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection of living species.
19th Century, scientific activity and discovery—science made more progress during this century than it had during the previous 20 centuries combined.
Significant scientific discoveries included:
The discoveries resulted in a challenge to traditionally held truths and scientific knowledge.
*political and social disorder due to the absence of governmental control:
total and absolute destructiveness, esp. toward the world at large and including oneself:
modernism is a cultural movement which rebelled against Victorian mores
Victoria culture emphasised nationalism and cultural absolutism (a political theory holding that all power should be vested in one ruler or other authority)
Belief a single way of looking at the world, and in absolute and clear-cut dichotomies between right and wrong, good and bad, hero and villain.
View of the world as being governed by God’s will—each person and thing in this world had a specific use.
Viewed the world as neatly divided between ‘civilised’ and ‘savage’ peoples.
According to the Victorians the the ‘civilised’ were those from industrialised nations, cash-based economies, Protestant Christian traditions, and patriarchal societies, the ‘savage’ were those from agrarian or hunter-gatherer tribes, barter-based economies, ‘pagans’ or ‘totemistic’ traditions, and matriarchal (or at least ‘unmanly’ societies.).