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Culturally Responsive Reading Comprehension. A Spotlight on CSR October 19, 2012. Agenda. Overview of CSR with activities (45 min) Learn CSR in group (30 min) Break (15 min) Breakout Session (45 min) Avon: Lucinda June Creek: Amy RTI and CLD Guide (John) (45 min).

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culturally responsive reading comprehension

Culturally Responsive Reading Comprehension

A Spotlight on CSR

October 19, 2012

agenda
Agenda
  • Overview of CSR with activities (45 min)
  • Learn CSR in group (30 min)
  • Break (15 min)
  • Breakout Session (45 min)
    • Avon: Lucinda
    • June Creek: Amy
  • RTI and CLD Guide (John) (45 min)
teaching reading comprehension
Teaching Reading Comprehension
  • Read Transcript 1: A discussion of Eleven and write down any notes as you go.
  • What do you notice?
  • What seems to be working?
  • What aspects can be improved upon?

Discuss briefly with a partner

Read Transcript 2: debriefing the first lesson and write down your thoughts.

Debrief as a group.

why do we need to teach reading comprehension
Why do we need to teach reading comprehension?
  • Observation of classrooms yields little time devoted to explicit strategy instruction in reading comprehension.
  • “Students were prompted to generate the types of ideas that might occur to strategic readers as they read, but were not actually taught the strategies themselves, how to use them or the utility of the strategies” (Pressley, 2006, p. 299).
reading comprehension for ells
Reading Comprehension for ELLs

Combination of direct instruction and interactive approaches

Reading aloud, modeled and shared reading

Modified guided reading (select books according to stage of

development)

Reciprocal teaching

Collaborative Strategic Reading

Scaffolded retelling (modeling and explicit teaching of text

structure, connectors)

Literature circles (select quality literature in which the students can see themselves)

Text sets (set of books around a topic, can include different

genres)

Reading responses incorporating art, music, drama, poetry

collaborative strategic reading
Collaborative Strategic Reading
  • Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) combines cooperative learning (e.g., Johnson & Johnson, 1989) and reading comprehension strategy instruction (e.g., Palincsar & Brown, 1984).
  • CSR was designed to promote content learning, language acquisition, and reading comprehension in diverse classrooms (Klingner, Vaughn, & Schumm, 1998).
csr overview
CSR: Overview
  • Students of mixed achievement levels apply comprehension strategies while reading content area text in small cooperative groups.
  • Initially, the teacher presents the strategies (preview, click and clunk, get the gist, and wrap up) to the whole class using modeling, role playing, and teacher think-alouds.
  • After students have developed proficiency applying the strategies through teacher-facilitated activities, they are then divided into heterogeneous groups where each student performs a defined role as students collaboratively implement the strategies.
what is csr
What is CSR?
  • Includes strategies to use before, during and after reading
  • Uses cooperative learning to build comprehension
  • Can improve reading comprehension of students with diverse academic needs
  • Designed to be implemented in whole class setting and strategies can be reinforced during guided reading/small group instruction.
csr goals
CSR: Goals
  • To increase conceptual learning and the acquisition of content knowledge in ways that maximize students' involvement.
  • To enhance reading comprehension skills for all students and particularly those with learning disabilities or at-risk for reading difficulties.
cooperative learning
Cooperative Learning
  • Effective in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms and in classrooms that include students with learning disabilities.
  • Increases opportunities for meaningful communication about academic content in low-anxiety contexts.
  • Potentially provides modified input for English language learners.
  • Allows English language learners to draw on native language support from bilingual peers.
  • Can be used to provide scaffolded collaborative assistance and lead to cognitive growth.
  • Students like it!
comprehension strategies
Comprehension Strategies
  • Comprehension strategies reflect the mental processes or tactics used by successful readers when interacting with text.
  • As students progress through the elementary grades, they are required to read increasingly complex levels of material in content area textbooks.
  • Reading comprehension plays a larger and larger role as students mature.
  • Comprehension strategy instruction is based on the premise that even students who have difficulty understanding text can be successfully taught to apply the strategies used by good readers, and that when poor readers learn to apply these strategies, their reading comprehension will improve.
  • Comprehension strategies are helpful for all readers, but are critical for students with learning problems.
csr plan for strategic reading
CSR Plan for Strategic Reading

BEFORE READING

DURING READING

AFTER READING

  • Click and Clunk
  • Were there any words that were hard to understand (clunks)?
  • How can we fix the clunks?
  • Use fix-up strategies:
    • Think about what you already know about the topic.
    • Look for clues in the text that can help you understand the word.
    • Look for a picture that can help you.

Wrap-up

ASK QUESTIONS:What questions check whether we understand the most important information in the passage? Can we answer the questions?

REVIEW: What are the most important ideas?

Preview

BRAINSTORM: What do we already know about the topic?

PREDICT (Picture Walk): What do we predict we will learn about the topic when we read the passage?

Get the Gist

What is the most important person, place, or thing?

What is the most important idea about the person, place, or thing?

13

csr plan for strategic reading1
CSR Plan for Strategic Reading

BEFORE READING

DURING READING

AFTER READING

  • Click and Clunk
  • Were there any words that were hard to understand (clunks)?
  • How can we fix the clunks?
  • Use fix-up strategies:
    • Re-read the sentence with the clunk
    • Re-read the sentence before and after the clunk
    • Look for prefix, suffix, root word.
    • Look for cognates

Wrap-up

ASK QUESTIONS:What questions check whether we understand the most important information in the passage? Can we answer the questions?

REVIEW: What are the most important ideas?

Preview

BRAINSTORM: What do we already know about the topic?

PREDICT (Text Preview): What do we predict we will learn about the topic when we read the passage?

Get the Gist

What is the most important person, place, or thing?

What is the most important idea about the person, place, or thing?

14

csr previewing
CSR: Previewing

At the beginning of the lesson, the teacher asks: What is reading? Reading is thinking. There are lots of ways that we think while we read.

  • Before Reading:

Goals of previewing:

    • To activate students’background knowledge about the topic.
    • To help students make predictions about what they will learn.
    • To motivate students’interest in the topic and to engage them in active reading from the onset.

Strategies:

  • Brainstorm:
    • What do we already know about the topic?
  • Predict:
    • What do we predict we will learn about the topic when we read the book?
csr click and clunk k 1
CSR: Click and Clunk K-1

2) During Reading:

Students click and clunk while reading the book with the teacher.

Teacher asks students to raise their hand when they find a word that they don’t understand or a “clunk” (flags it on the page with a post-it), then tells students that they will come back to those words.

Goals of clicking and clunking:

  • For students to monitor their reading comprehension.
  • To identify when they have breakdowns in understanding (“clunks”).
  • To use“fix-up” strategies to figure out clunks

Strategies:

    • Think about what you already know about the topic that can help you understand the word.
    • Look for clues in the book that can help you understand the word.
    • Look for clues in the illustrations
csr click and clunk 2 3
CSR: Click and Clunk 2-3
  • Students click and clunk while reading each section of the passage. The goals of clicking and clunking are:
    • For students to monitor their reading comprehension.
    • To identify when they have breakdowns in understanding (“clunks”).
    • To use “fix-up” strategies to figure out clunks:
      • Reread the sentence without the word. Think about what would make sense.
      • Reread the sentence with the clunk and the sentences before or after the clunk looking for clues.
      • Look for a prefix or suffix in the word Or break the word apart and look for smaller words you know
      • Look for cognates
fix up strategies
Fix-up Strategies
  • Reread the sentence with the clunk and look for key ideas to help you figure out the word. Think about what makes sense.
  • Reread the sentences before and after the clunk, looking for clues.
  • Break the word apart and look for word parts (prefixes, suffixes, root words) or smaller words you know.
  • Look for a cognate that makes sense.

Strategies

#1 & #2 use

context clues

Strategies

#3 & #4 use word analysis

click and clunk examples context clues
In the summer, the birds molt, or lose their feathers.

Peregrine falcons are raptors, or birds of prey.

A snake’s body is very supple. It can bend easily. It can fit in small spaces.

Click and Clunk Examples: CONTEXT CLUES

Fix up Strategies??

click and clunk examples word clues
Click and Clunk Examples: WORD CLUES
  • In the early days, gold was transported in wagons.
  • The Department of Motor Vehicles requires a thumbprint to get a driver’s license
  • Students should participateduring class.
activity clunk practice
ACTIVITY: Clunk Practice

In Shakespearean drama, both tragic and comic, the storms and calamities that shake the sublunary globe are reflections of turmoil in the hearts of men.

Fix-up strategy?

activity clunk practice1
ACTIVITY: Clunk Practice
  • Among other preliminary activities, the prospective groom’s party formally inquires as the girl’s clan name; this is a ritualization of the taboo on consanguineous marriage.
  • Fix-up strategy?
examples fixing clunks
Examples: Fixing Clunks

Sylvia: Pads.

Marcos:Pads es . . . clunk expert?

Carol: Read the sentences before or after the clunk looking for clues. OK. “Look at these

bones that have pads of cartilage between them.” It is saying that cartilage has something that is between them, something that protects them. OK, it is something that protects the bone.

Marcos:Pads esalgoqueprotege los huesos.

Carol: OK, everybody understand now?

slide25
Albert: Who has a clunk?

Pablo: Calcium.

Albert: Try to read sentences in the back and in the front to try to get a clue. Think if you see any sentences in the back or in the front that can help you. Did you get anything?

Pablo: No.

Albert: OK, now I do, I get something. It is a tiny crystal-like mineral. Do you know what mineral is?

Pablo: Yeah.

Albert: What is it?

Pablo: It’s like a kind of vitamin.

Albert: OK, calcium is a type of element that there is in the bones. And, the bones need that. Calcium helps the bones in order to make them strong. Do you now understand what calcium is?

Pablo: Yes.

Albert: What is it again, one more time?

Pablo: It is a type of element that helps the bones grow.

Albert: OK, good.

csr get the gist
CSR: Get the Gist

Students learn to “get the gist” by identifying the most important idea the text.

It should only include the most important idea and exclude the details that support the main idea.

Goals of “getting the gist”:

    • To teach students to restate in their own words the most important point as a way of making sure they have understood what they have read.
    • To improve students’ memory of what they have learned.

Strategies:

  • Identify the most important person, place, or thing.
  • State in your own words the most important idea about the person, place, or thing. Use as few words as possible.
seabirds
Seabirds

A seabird is any bird that spends most of its time at sea and depends on the sea and its islands for all its basic needs. The sea provides food and its remote islands and rocky outcroppings provide safe nesting and resting places. For 60 million years, these highly specialized, diverse birds have adapted to life on the world’s vast oceans.

get the gist seabirds
Get the Gist: Seabirds
  • Who or what:

Seabirds

  • Important information:

Seabirds spend most of their time at sea.

Seabirds depend on the sea and its islands for their basic needs.

The sea provides food and resting and nesting places.

  • Write the gist in 10 words or less:

Seabirds get what they need from the sea.

Seabirds depend on the sea for everything they need.

fixing a clunk getting the gist
Fixing a Clunk & Getting the Gist

Maria: Quecosaquieredecir wrinkle? (What does wrinkle mean?)

Susana: Es lo quecubre el cerebrum. (It is what covers the brain.)

Stan: No, escuandotutienesqueplanchar y tienearrugas. Son arrugas. (It is when you have to iron and it has wrinkles. They are wrinkles.)

Susana: OK, can someone get the gist? Gloria?

Gloria: It is talking about the cerebrum and its surface is like wrinkled and folded.

csr wrap up k 1
CSR: Wrap Up K-1

3) After Reading:

Students “wrap up” by formulating questions about what they have learned and by reviewing key ideas.

Goals of the Wrap Up:

  • To improve students’ knowledge, understanding, and memory of what was read.

Strategies:

  • Generating questions: Formulate questions to check whether we understand the most important information in the passage. Pretend that you are the teacher and formulate questions that you would include in a test. Other students should try to answer the questions.
    • Use question starters: who, what, when , where, why, and how (“the 5 W’s and an H”).
    • Some questions should be about information stated explicitly in the passage and other questions require an answer not right in the passage, but “in your head”.
  • Reviewing: Think about the most important ideas you learned from the reading assigned today.
csr wrap up 2 3
CSR: Wrap Up 2-3

3) After Reading:

Students “wrap up” by formulating questions about what they have learned and by reviewing key ideas.

Goals of the Wrap Up:

  • To improve students’ knowledge, understanding, and memory of what was read.

Strategies:

  • Generating questions: Formulate questions to check whether we understand the most important information in the passage. Pretend that you are the teacher and formulate questions that you would include in a test. Other students should try to answer the questions.
    • Use question starters: who, what, when , where, why, and how (“the 5 W’s and an H”).
    • Some questions should be about information stated explicitly in the passage and other questions require an answer not right in the passage, but in your head.
    • CSR has leveled questions: Right There, Think and Search, Author and You
  • Reviewing: Think about the most important ideas you learned from the reading assigned today.
question stems
Question Stems
  • Questions stems provide a scaffold for question generation.
  • Examples:
    • What is_________?
    • What was the turning point in _________?
    • Who was __________ and what did he (or she) do?
    • What were some of the reasons for _________?
    • What were some of the problems faced by _________?
    • Why is ________ a good or a bad thing?
    • Why do you think _________ happened?
questioning during wrap up
Questioning during Wrap Up

Tasha: What might happen if your bones did not contain enough calcium?

Anthony: They will break.

Tasha: OK, they will probably break. But can we add a little bit?

Natalie: Well, first of all, what is calcium? And then we can figure out what it says and how it helps the bones.

Anthony: OK, calcium is something that keeps the bones healthy and stuff like that.

Natalie: Tasha?

Tasha: If you don’t have enough calcium the bones will rot and you will be dead. And, then after you die you know your bones decay and you turn into dust. Your bones will like decompose in your body which will destroy and corrupt. If it does not have enough calcium, then the bones will get weak and break.

Luis: OK, I would say the same thing because the bones without calcium are nothing.

Natalie: All right, well, we finished this.

whole class wrap up steps
Whole Class-Wrap Up Steps
  • Ask students to share review statements.
  • Provide a quick summary.
  • Have students write a longer summary of what they read.
  • Review predictions.
  • Follow up with a short activity that focuses on content or strategies…or both!
csr assigning roles
CSR: Assigning Roles
  • Once students have developed proficiency applying the comprehension strategies, they are ready to learn the roles they will perform while using CSR in their peer-led cooperative learning groups.
  • Roles are an important aspect of CSR because cooperative learning seems to work best when all group members have an assigned, meaningful task.
  • Roles should rotate on a regular basis so that students can experience a variety of roles and so that everyone takes a turn being the Leader.
  • Students can perform more than one role at a time if necessary.
csr roles
CSR: Roles
  • Leader: Leads the group in the implementation of CSR by saying what to read or which strategy to do next.
  • Clunk Expert: Leads the group in trying to figure out difficult words or concepts.
  • Gist Expert: Guides the group towards the development of a gist and determines that the gist contains the most important idea(s) but no unnecessary details.
  • Question Expert: Guides the group in developing levels of questions and then sharing them with the group.
  • Announcer: Calls on different group members to read or share an idea. Makes sure everyone participates and only one person talks at a time.
  • Encourager: Watches the group and gives feedback. Looks for behaviors to praise. Encourages all group members to participate and assist one another.
  • Time Keeper: Sets the timer for each portion of CSR and lets the group know when it is time to move on. Helps keep the group on task.
csr materials
CSR: Materials
  • Cue Cards explain the steps to be followed to fulfill each role. Cue cards seem to help students stay focused and on task, and increase their confidence. Students should discontinue use of the cue sheets when they feel secure.
  • Clunk Cards help the Clunk Expert know what strategies to use when trying to figure out words that are not understood.
  • CSR Learning Logs enable students to keep track of learning "as it happens" and provide a springboard for follow-up activities. Logs furnish an additional way for all students to participate actively in their groups.
  • Timers are optional. Kitchen timers that students set by themselves can help groups to remain on task and not get excessively bogged down with any one strategy or step in the CSR process.
csr learning log
CSR Learning Log

Today’s Topic: Name: Date:

slide44

Diario de CSREl tema de hoy_____________________________________ La fecha__________ El nombre _____________________

csr reading materials
CSR: Reading Materials
  • CSR was primarily designed to be used with expository text found in social studies, science, and other content area textbooks. CSR can also be used with narrative text.
  • Select reading material with well-formed, interesting passages that are conducive to strategy application. Such material is characterized by: (a) clues that help students predict what they will be learning, (b) having one main idea in a paragraph, and (c) providing context that helps students connect information.
  • Begin CSR with the Weekly Reader, Scholastic, or a similar non-fiction publication that captures students’ interest and can be read in a short time.
text book selection
Text/Book Selection
  • We select books for different purposes (fluency, phonemic awareness, comprehension, enjoyment)
  • When a reading is appropriate for comprehension- CSR gives a good framework
  • CSR fits into a balanced literacy program
csr across grade levels
CSR Across Grade Levels

K-2

Introduce idea of using strategies to support reading.

Model and provide guided practice.

You don’t need to use all strategies all the time.

Use CSR with big books

Scaffold, scaffold, scaffold

3-HS

Full CSR is the goal

Adapt as needed

csr teacher s role
CSR: Teacher’s Role
  • Teach the strategies and procedures to students through whole class and small group teacher-led activities.
  • Implement CSR 2-3 times a week with selected content area units and/or weekly with “Time for Kids” or other periodical.
  • Once students are working in their groups, circulate and provide ongoing assistance. Actively listen to students' conversations and if necessary clarify difficult words, model strategy usage, encourage students to participate, and model a helpful attitude.
  • Periodically conduct a whole-class preview and/or a whole-class wrap up to introduce and/or review important concepts.
  • Conduct follow-up activities to reinforce learning.
phases of strategy instruction
Phases of Strategy Instruction

Modeling phase:

  • The teacher models each step of the strategy while thinking aloud
  • I do it you watch
  • Whole group instruction

Teacher-assisted phase:

  • The teacher guides he students through the strategy
  • You do it; I help
  • Whole group or small group instruction

Independent phase:

  • The students complete the strategy on their own
  • You do it: I watch and still help as needed
slide50

How is CSR different than Reciprocal Teaching?

  • CSR is an adaptation of Reciprocal Teaching.
  • After implementing Reciprocal Teaching in our earlier work (Klingner & Vaughn, 1996), we adapted it until we had made so many changes that we felt we had come up with an instructional approach sufficiently different to warrant a new name.
activity
Activity
  • Teachers practice with Stepping Lightly Text
  • 30 min

Today’ topic:

Human locomotion

Key vocabulary:

  • Groucho Marx
  • Gait: the way locomotion is

achieved using human limbs.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a3rdOUNr8XE

Purpose: To understand CSR

breakout activity
Breakout Activity
  • Model for student level
  • Apply
  • Discussion- how to support the students
  • How to incorporate for guided reading