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  1. ECE 448 Lecture 5 Behavioral Design Style:Registers, Counters, Shift Registers ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  2. Required reading • S. Brown and Z. Vranesic,Fundamentals of Digital Logic with VHDL Design • Chapter 7, Flip-Flops, Registers, Counters, • and a Simple Processor • (7.14 optional) ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  3. Optional Reading • Sundar Rajan, Essential VHDL: RTL Synthesis • Done Right • Chapter 4, Registers and Latches • Chapter 5, Counters and Simple Arithmetic • Functions • (see errata at http://www.vahana.com/bugs.htm) ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  4. Behavioral Design Style: Registers & Counters ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  5. What is a PROCESS? • A process is a sequence of instructions referred to as sequential statements. The keyword PROCESS • A process can be given a unique name using an optional LABEL • This is followed by the keyword PROCESS • The keyword BEGIN is used to indicate the start of the process • All statements within the process are executed SEQUENTIALLY. Hence, the order of statements is important. • A process must end with the keywords END PROCESS. testing: PROCESS BEGIN test_vector<=“00”; WAIT FOR 10 ns; test_vector<=“01”; WAIT FOR 10 ns; test_vector<=“10”; WAIT FOR 10 ns; test_vector<=“11”; WAIT FOR 10 ns; END PROCESS; ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  6. Anatomy of a Process OPTIONAL [label:]PROCESS[(sensitivity list)] [declaration part] BEGIN statement part ENDPROCESS [label]; ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  7. Statement Part • Contains Sequential Statements to be Executed Each Time the Process Is Activated • Analogous to Conventional Programming Languages ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  8. List of signals to which the process is sensitive. Whenever there is an event on any of the signals in the sensitivity list, the process fires. Every time the process fires, it will run in its entirety. WAIT statements are NOT ALLOWED in a processes with SENSITIVITY LIST. label: process (sensitivity list) declaration part begin statement part end process; PROCESS with a SENSITIVITY LIST ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  9. Processes in VHDL • Processes Describe Sequential Behavior • Processes in VHDL Are Very Powerful Statements • Allow to define an arbitrary behavior that may be difficult to represent by a real circuit • Not every process can be synthesized • Use Processes with Caution in the Code to Be Synthesized • Use Processes Freely in Testbenches ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  10. Use of Processes in the Synthesizable Code ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  11. All signals which appear on the left of signal assignment statement (<=) are outputs e.g. y, z All signals which appear on the right of signal assignment statement (<=) or in logic expressions are inputse.g. w, a, b, c All signals which appear in the sensitivity list are inputs e.g. clk Note that not all inputs need to be included in the sensitivity list Component Equivalent of a Process clk y w priority a z b c priority: PROCESS (clk) BEGIN IF w(3) = '1' THEN y <= "11" ; ELSIF w(2) = '1' THEN y <= "10" ; ELSIF w(1) = c THEN y <= a and b; ELSE z <= "00" ; END IF ; END PROCESS ; ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  12. VHDL Design Styles dataflow VHDL Design Styles structural behavioral Components and interconnects Concurrent statements Sequential statements • Registers • Shift registers • Counters • State machines synthesizable and more if you are careful ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  13. Registers ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  14. Q D Clock D latch Truth table Graphical symbol Q(t+1) Clock D Q(t) – 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 Timing diagram t t t t 1 2 3 4 Clock D Q Time ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  15. Q D Clock D flip-flop Truth table Graphical symbol Q(t+1) Clk D 0  0 1  1 – Q(t) 0 Q(t) 1 – Timing diagram t t t t 1 2 3 4 Clock D Q Time ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  16. Q D Clock D latch LIBRARY ieee ; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all ; ENTITY latch IS PORT ( D, Clock : IN STD_LOGIC ; Q : OUT STD_LOGIC) ; END latch ; ARCHITECTURE Behavior OF latch IS BEGIN PROCESS ( D, Clock ) BEGIN IF Clock = '1' THEN Q <= D ; END IF ; END PROCESS ; END Behavior; ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  17. D flip-flop LIBRARY ieee ; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all ; ENTITY flipflop IS PORT ( D, Clock : IN STD_LOGIC ; Q : OUT STD_LOGIC) ; END flipflop ; ARCHITECTURE Behavior_1 OF flipflop IS BEGIN PROCESS ( Clock ) BEGIN IF Clock'EVENT AND Clock = '1' THEN Q <= D ; END IF ; END PROCESS ; END Behavior_1 ; Q D Clock ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  18. D flip-flop LIBRARY ieee ; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all ; ENTITY flipflop IS PORT ( D, Clock : IN STD_LOGIC ; Q : OUT STD_LOGIC) ; END flipflop ; ARCHITECTURE Behavior_2 OF flipflop IS BEGIN PROCESS BEGIN WAIT UNTIL Clock'EVENT AND Clock = '1' ; Q <= D ; END PROCESS ; END Behavior_2 ; Q D Clock ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  19. D flip-flop with asynchronous reset LIBRARY ieee ; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all ; ENTITY flipflop IS PORT ( D, Resetn, Clock : IN STD_LOGIC ; Q : OUT STD_LOGIC) ; END flipflop ; ARCHITECTURE Behavior OF flipflop IS BEGIN PROCESS ( Resetn, Clock ) BEGIN IF Resetn = '0' THEN Q <= '0' ; ELSIF Clock'EVENT AND Clock = '1' THEN Q <= D ; END IF ; END PROCESS ; END Behavior ; Q D Clock Resetn ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  20. D flip-flop with synchronous reset LIBRARY ieee ; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all ; ENTITY flipflop IS PORT ( D, Resetn, Clock : IN STD_LOGIC ; Q : OUT STD_LOGIC) ; END flipflop ; ARCHITECTURE Behavior OF flipflop IS BEGIN PROCESS BEGIN WAIT UNTIL Clock'EVENT AND Clock = '1' ; IF Resetn = '0' THEN Q <= '0' ; ELSE Q <= D ; END IF ; END PROCESS ; END Behavior ; Q D Clock Resetn ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  21. 8 8 Resetn D Q Clock reg8 8-bit register with asynchronous reset LIBRARY ieee ; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all ; ENTITY reg8 IS PORT ( D : IN STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(7 DOWNTO 0) ; Resetn, Clock : IN STD_LOGIC ; Q : OUT STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(7 DOWNTO 0) ) ; END reg8 ; ARCHITECTURE Behavior OF reg8 IS BEGIN PROCESS ( Resetn, Clock ) BEGIN IF Resetn = '0' THEN Q <= "00000000" ; ELSIF Clock'EVENT AND Clock = '1' THEN Q <= D ; END IF ; END PROCESS ; END Behavior ;` ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  22. N N Resetn D Q Clock regn N-bit register with asynchronous reset LIBRARY ieee ; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all ; ENTITY regn IS GENERIC ( N : INTEGER := 16 ) ; PORT ( D : IN STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(N-1 DOWNTO 0) ; Resetn, Clock : IN STD_LOGIC ; Q : OUT STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(N-1 DOWNTO 0) ) ; END regn ; ARCHITECTURE Behavior OF regn IS BEGIN PROCESS ( Resetn, Clock ) BEGIN IF Resetn = '0' THEN Q <= (OTHERS => '0') ; ELSIF Clock'EVENT AND Clock = '1' THEN Q <= D ; END IF ; END PROCESS ; END Behavior ; ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  23. N N N-bit register with enable LIBRARY ieee ; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all ; ENTITY regn IS GENERIC ( N : INTEGER := 8 ) ; PORT ( D : IN STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(N-1 DOWNTO 0) ; Enable, Clock : IN STD_LOGIC ; Q : OUT STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(N-1 DOWNTO 0) ) ; END regn ; ARCHITECTURE Behavior OF regn IS BEGIN PROCESS (Clock) BEGIN IF (Clock'EVENT AND Clock = '1' ) THEN IF Enable = '1' THEN Q <= D ; END IF ; END IF; END PROCESS ; END Behavior ; Enable Q D Clock regn ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  24. Counters ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  25. 2 Clear Q upcount Clock 2-bit up-counter with synchronous reset LIBRARY ieee ; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all ; USE ieee.std_logic_unsigned.all ; ENTITY upcount IS PORT ( Clear, Clock : IN STD_LOGIC ; Q : BUFFER STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(1 DOWNTO 0) ) ; END upcount ; ARCHITECTURE Behavior OF upcount IS BEGIN upcount: PROCESS ( Clock ) BEGIN IF (Clock'EVENT AND Clock = '1') THEN IF Clear = '1' THEN Q <= "00" ; ELSE Q <= Q + “01” ; END IF ; END IF; END PROCESS; END Behavior ; ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  26. Enable 4 Q Clock upcount Resetn 4-bit up-counter with asynchronous reset (1) LIBRARY ieee ; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all ; USE ieee.std_logic_unsigned.all ; ENTITY upcount IS PORT ( Clock, Resetn, Enable : IN STD_LOGIC ; Q : OUT STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (3 DOWNTO 0)) ; END upcount ; ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  27. Enable 4 Q Clock upcount Resetn 4-bit up-counter with asynchronous reset (2) ARCHITECTURE Behavior OF upcount IS SIGNAL Count : STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (3 DOWNTO 0) ; BEGIN PROCESS ( Clock, Resetn ) BEGIN IF Resetn = '0' THEN Count <= "0000" ; ELSIF (Clock'EVENT AND Clock = '1') THEN IF Enable = '1' THEN Count <= Count + 1 ; END IF ; END IF ; END PROCESS ; Q <= Count ; END Behavior ; ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  28. Shift Registers ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  29. Shift register D D D D Q Q Q Q Q(1) Q(0) Q(2) Q(3) Sin Clock Enable ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  30. Shift Register With Parallel Load D(0) D D D D Q Q Q Q Load D(3) D(1) D(2) Sin Clock Enable Q(3) Q(2) Q(1) Q(0) ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  31. 4 4 Enable D Q Load Sin shift4 Clock 4-bit shift register with parallel load (1) LIBRARY ieee ; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all ; ENTITY shift4 IS PORT ( D : IN STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(3 DOWNTO 0) ; Enable : IN STD_LOGIC ; Load : IN STD_LOGIC ; Sin : IN STD_LOGIC ; Clock : IN STD_LOGIC ; Q : BUFFER STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(3 DOWNTO 0) ) ; END shift4 ; ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  32. 4 4 Enable D Q Load Sin shift4 Clock 4-bit shift register with parallel load (2) ARCHITECTURE Behavior_1 OF shift4 IS BEGIN PROCESS (Clock) BEGIN IF Clock'EVENT AND Clock = '1' THEN IF Load = '1' THEN Q <= D ; ELSIF Enable = ‘1’ THEN Q(0) <= Q(1) ; Q(1) <= Q(2); Q(2) <= Q(3) ; Q(3) <= Sin; END IF ; END IF ; END PROCESS ; END Behavior_1 ; ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  33. Enable N N D Q Load Sin shiftn Clock N-bit shift register with parallel load (1) LIBRARY ieee ; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all ; ENTITY shiftn IS GENERIC ( N : INTEGER := 8 ) ; PORT ( D : IN STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(N-1 DOWNTO 0) ; Enable : IN STD_LOGIC ; Load : IN STD_LOGIC ; Sin : IN STD_LOGIC ; Clock : IN STD_LOGIC ; Q : BUFFER STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(N-1 DOWNTO 0) ) ; END shiftn ; ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  34. Enable N N D Q Load Sin shiftn Clock N-bit shift register with parallel load (2) ARCHITECTURE Behavior OF shiftn IS BEGIN PROCESS (Clock) BEGIN IF (Clock'EVENT AND Clock = '1' ) THEN IF Load = '1' THEN Q <= D ; ELSIF Enable = ‘1’ THEN Genbits: FOR i IN 0 TO N-2 LOOP Q(i) <= Q(i+1) ; END LOOP ; Q(N-1) <= Sin ; END IF; END IF ; END PROCESS ; END Behavior ; ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  35. Generic ComponentInstantiation ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  36. N N N-bit register with enable LIBRARY ieee ; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all ; ENTITY regn IS GENERIC ( N : INTEGER := 8 ) ; PORT ( D : IN STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(N-1 DOWNTO 0) ; Enable, Clock : IN STD_LOGIC ; Q : OUT STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(N-1 DOWNTO 0) ) ; END regn ; ARCHITECTURE Behavior OF regn IS BEGIN PROCESS (Clock) BEGIN IF (Clock'EVENT AND Clock = '1' ) THEN IF Enable = '1' THEN Q <= D ; END IF ; END IF; END PROCESS ; END Behavior ; Enable Q D Clock regn ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  37. Circuit built of medium scale components s(0) En r(0) p(0) 0 1 r(1) q(0) Enable w p(1) w y 0 y 0 0 z(0) t(0) 0 q(1) w r(2) 1 w y p(2) y 1 1 1 z(1) t(1) r(3) w ena D Q 2 y z w 2 z(2) t(2) 3 priority r(4) p(3) y 0 En 3 z(3) t(3) regn dec2to4 1 r(5) Clock Clk s(1) ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  38. Structural description – example (1) LIBRARY ieee ; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all ; ENTITY priority_resolver IS PORT (r : IN STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(5 DOWNTO 0) ; s : IN STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(1 DOWNTO 0) ; clk : IN STD_LOGIC; en : IN STD_LOGIC; t : OUT STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(3 DOWNTO 0) ) ; END priority_resolver; ARCHITECTURE structural OF priority_resolver IS SIGNAL p : STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (3 DOWNTO 0) ; SIGNAL q : STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (1 DOWNTO 0) ; SIGNAL z : STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (3 DOWNTO 0) ; SIGNAL ena : STD_LOGIC ; ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  39. Structural description – example (2) COMPONENT mux2to1 PORT (w0, w1, s : IN STD_LOGIC ; f : OUT STD_LOGIC ) ; END COMPONENT ; COMPONENT priority PORT (w : IN STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(3 DOWNTO 0) ; y : OUT STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(1 DOWNTO 0) ; z : OUT STD_LOGIC ) ; END COMPONENT ; COMPONENT dec2to4 PORT (w : IN STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(1 DOWNTO 0) ; En : IN STD_LOGIC ; y : OUT STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(3 DOWNTO 0) ) ; END COMPONENT ; ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  40. Structural description – example (3) COMPONENT regn GENERIC ( N : INTEGER := 8 ) ; PORT ( D : IN STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(N-1 DOWNTO 0) ; Enable, Clock : IN STD_LOGIC ; Q : OUT STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(N-1 DOWNTO 0) ) ; END COMPONENT ; ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  41. Structural description – example (4) BEGIN u1: mux2to1PORT MAP (w0 => r(0) , w1 => r(1), s => s(0), f => p(0)); p(1) <= r(2); p(1) <= r(3); u2: mux2to1PORT MAP (w0 => r(4) , w1 => r(5), s => s(1), f => p(3)); u3: priority PORT MAP (w => p, y => q, z => ena); u4: dec2to4PORT MAP (w => q, En => ena, y => z); ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  42. Structural description – example (5) u5: regn GENERIC MAP (N => 4) PORT MAP (D => z , Enable => En , Clock => Clk, Q=> t ); END structural; ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  43. Sequential Statements ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  44. Sequential Statements (1) • If statement • else and elsifare optional ifboolean expression then statements elsif boolean expression then statements else boolean expression then statements end if; ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  45. Sequential Statements (2) • Case statement • Choices have to cover all possible values of the condition • Use others to specify all remaining cases casecondition is when choice_1 => statements when choice_2 => statements when others => statements end case; ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  46. Sequential Statements (3) • Loop Statement • Repeats a section of VHDL code fori in range loop statements end loop; ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  47. Sequential Logic Synthesis for Beginners ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  48. For Beginners Use processes with very simple structure only to describe - registers - shift registers - counters - state machines. Use examples discussed in class as a template. Create generic entities for registers, shift registers, and counters, and instantiate the corresponding components in a higher level circuit using GENERIC MAP PORT MAP. Supplement sequential components with combinational logic described using concurrent statements. ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  49. Sequential Logic Synthesis for Intermediates ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL

  50. For Intermmediates • Use Processes with IF and CASE statements only. Do not use LOOPS or VARIABLES. • Sensitivity list of the PROCESS should include only signals that can by themsleves change the outputs of the sequential circuit (typically, clock and asynchronous set or reset) • Do not use PROCESSes without sensitivity list (they can be synthesizable, but make simulation inefficient) ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL