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NARRATIVE. Film and Media Studies. What is Narrative?. Latin – NARRE - To make Known Via Causally related events Connected Sequenced Logically presented . Definition 2.

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narrative

NARRATIVE

Film and Media Studies

what is narrative
What is Narrative?
  • Latin –NARRE- To make Known
  • Via
    • Causally related events
    • Connected
    • Sequenced
    • Logically presented
definition 2
Definition 2
  • “Narrative is a way of organising spatial and temporal data into a cause and effect chain of events with a beginning, middle and end that embodies a judgement about the nature of the events as well as demonstrates how it is possible to know, and hence to narrate, the events. “ Brannigan E. Narrative Comprehension and Film
macro features of narrative
Macro Features of Narrative
  • Structure
  • Aristotle’s beginning, middle and end.
  • Todorov’s equilibrium>disequilibrium>re-equilibrium
  • Propp’s “functions”
  • Vogler’s “twelve steps”
  • 2. Temporal order,temporal duration, temporal frequency
  • 3. Story and Plot
  • Explicitly presented actions/events
  • Implicitly inferred ationas/events
  • Non diegetic material (captions/titles,drama enhancing music etc.)
micro features
Micro Features
  • 1. Constructional Devices
          • Cinematography
          • Mise- en- Scene
          • Editing
          • Sound

2. Genre Associations

Genre Codes (e.g. Iconography)

Genre Conventions

3. Narrative Codes

Levi Straus’s Binary Oppositions

Barthes Narrative Codes

Character Psychology

Semiotic Analysis

todorov
Todorov
  • Initial Situation (Equilibrium)
  • Disruption (Non equilibrium)
  • Restoration (Re Equilibrium)
propp 1928
Propp 1928
  • Morphology of the Russian Folktale 1928
  • Types of Characters, Specific Forms of Action, function in the Narrative.
  • Thiry One Functions identified.
specific research on narrative
Specific research on narrative
  • Vladimir Propp
  • Russian Formalist in the 1930s
  • He wanted to see if there was a finite number of structures for narrative. He analysied Russian folk tales and found they could be classified into 5 categories.
  • He also identified seven archetypal characters.
propp s character archetypes
Propp’s character archetypes
  • The Villain
  • The Donor/giver of knowledge
  • The Helper
  • The Princess (sought after person)
  • The Dispatcher
  • The Hero (or victim)
  • The False Hero
propp s character archetypes10
Propp’s character archetypes
  • The Villain Darth Vader
  • The Donor
  • The Helper
  • The Princess (sought after person)
  • The Dispatcher
  • The Hero (or victim)
  • The False Hero
propp s character archetypes11
Propp’s character archetypes
  • The Villain Darth Vader
  • The Donor Obi Won Kenobe
  • The Helper
  • The Princess
  • The Dispatcher
  • The Hero (or victim)
  • The False Hero
propp s character archetypes12
Propp’s character archetypes
  • The Villain Darth Vader
  • The Donor Obi Won Kenobe
  • The Helper Han Solo
  • The Princess
  • The Dispatcher
  • The Hero (or victim)
  • The False Hero
propp s character archetypes13
Propp’s character archetypes
  • The Villain Darth Vader
  • The Donor Obi Won Kenobe
  • The Helper Han Solo
  • The Princess Princess Leah
  • The Dispatcher
  • The Hero (or victim)
  • The False Hero
propp s character archetypes14
Propp’s character archetypes
  • The Villain Darth Vader
  • The Donor Obi Won Kenobe
  • The Helper Han Solo
  • The Princess Princess Leah
  • The Dispatcher R2 - D2
  • The Hero
  • The False Hero
propp s character archetypes15
Propp’s character archetypes
  • The Villain Darth Vader
  • The Donor Obi Won Kenobe
  • The Helper Han Solo
  • The Princess Princess Leah
  • The Dispatcher R2 - D2
  • The Hero Luke Skywalker
  • The False Hero
propp s character archetypes16
Propp’s character archetypes
  • The Villain Darth Vader
  • The Donor Obi Won Kenobe
  • The Helper Han Solo
  • The Princess Princess Leah
  • The Dispatcher R2 - D2
  • The Hero Luke Skywalker
  • The False Hero Darth Vader (Luke’s dad)
basic plots
Basic Plots
  • Romance: Boy meets girl / boy loses girl / boy finds girl(or Vice versa)
  • Bordwell and Thompson (1991) define narrative as “A chain of events in cause-effect relationship occurring in time and space.
  • The Kuleshov Effect: The linear connections we make between shots.
definitions from bordwell and thompson 1991
Definitions from Bordwell and Thompson (1991)
  • Plot: What we see on screen. Includes extra-narrative things.
  • Story: all that we know about the narrative including seen and unseen.
  • Diegesis: The total world of the story.
  • Parallelism: Parallel development of multiple storylines.
  • Cause and effect: Cause and effect. Causes can come from a character.
chris vogler 1992 the writers journey
Chris Vogler 1992The Writers Journey
  • Archetypes
    • Hero
    • Mentor
    • Shapeshifter
    • Trickster
    • Herald
    • Allies
    • Shadow
    • Threshold Guardians
  • The Hero’s Journey
    • Ordinary World
    • Call to Adventure
    • Refusal of the Call
    • Mentor
    • First Threshold
    • Tests, Allies, Enemies
    • Approach to the Inmost Cave
    • Ordeal
    • Reward (seizing the sword)
    • The Road Back
    • Resurrection
    • Return with the Elixir
levi strauss
Levi Strauss
  • Binary Opposites (Macro)
    • Protagonist/Antagonist
    • Action /Inaction

Binary Opposites (Micro)

    • Good looking / Ugly
    • Witty / Humourless
barthes
Barthes
  • Audience Decodes
    • Enigma Code (sets up a question to be answered later)
    • Semic Code (How characters, actions ,events, settings etc. take on meaning within a culture.
    • Symbolic Code - Binary Oppositions or Psychological symbols
    • Action Code - understood by cross reference to other narratives in our culture
    • Cultural Codes - understood through our interaction with the wider world.
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