Stronge Hiring Protocol: Powered by MyLearningPlan Interviewing and Selecting Quality Teachers and Principals
Estimates of Dismissing Ineffective Teachers & Student Achievement (Adapted from Hanushek, 2008)
Value of High VA Teacher Their students: • Are more likely to attend college • Are less likely to have children as teenagers • Earn more money (+$52,000) • Live in better neighborhoods • Save more for retirement (Chetty, Friedman, & Rockoff, 2011)
Why Shortages of Well Qualified Candidates? • Uneven distribution (across geographic and subject areas) • Other career opportunities • Teaching not rewarding • Graduates not choosing to teach • Money
Comparative Pay Source: OECD. (2010). PISA 2009 results: What makes a school successful? (Volume IV). Available athttp://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264091559-en.
TEACHERS WANTED College graduate with academic major (master’s degree preferred). Excellent communication and leadership skills required. Challenging opportunity to serve up to 150 clients daily, developing up to five different products each day to meet their needs. This diversified job also allows employees to exercise typing, clerical, law enforcement, and social work skills between assignments and after hours. Adaptability helpful, since suppliers cannot always deliver goods and support services on time. Typical work week 47 hours. Special nature of work precludes fringe benefits such as lunch and coffee breaks, but work has many intrinsic rewards. Starting salary $40,000 with a guarantee of $50,000 in only 10 years. Call 1-800-TEACHER.
Salaries of Professionals PositionAverage Teachers $54,270 Registered Nurse $65,950 Psychologist $67,880 Computer Systems Analyst $78,770 Comparative Pay: U.S. • Source: U.S. News and World Report (2013). Best Jobs 2013. Report Available at http://money.usnews.com/careers/best-jobs/rankings
The Teaching Force Becomes Older—And Younger Source: Ingersoll & Merrill (2010)
Why Do Teachers Leave? Reasons? Solutions?
Reasons Teachers Leave • Salary • Benefits • Low social status of the profession • Management and leadership • Student discipline problems • Promotion • Working conditions • Absence of further educational opportunities
Reasons Teachers Leave Source: Shakrani, 2008
Role of Hiring Hiring plays an essential role in building a strong instructional team and organization capacity. A fit between new instructors’ skills, interests, and expertise and the positions they obtain is important both for improving the instructional quality, as well as for improving instructor satisfaction and addressing instructor shortage. Source: Liu, E. (2002). New teachers’ experiences of hiring in New Jersey. Harvard Graduate School of Education, Project on the Next Generation of Teachers.
Think about Your Experiences with Teacher Selection What Doesn’t? What Works?
What Doesn’t Work Well? • Unstructured interviews • Yes/No questions • Situational questions • Confirming first impressions
Fact = 14% Opinion = 34% Situation = 19% Experience = 33% HR Favorite Questions Note: Convenience sample of workshop participants N=219
Quick Decision Making How long does it take interviewers to make a decision about the suitability of the candidate?
Did You Know …? • Favorable first impression followed by: • Positive style of interviewing • “Selling the company” • Less information gathering • Bonus to final rating of applicant
Did You Know …? • Positive first impression: • Positive evidence sought • Negative first impression: • Negative evidence NOT sought, but • Negative information obtained is heavily weighted • Result: • First impressions skew accuracy of interview
First Impression: First Second of Meeting • Facial expression • Dress • Gestures • Body Size
Snap Judgments Influence of Nonverbal Behavior Negative Emphasis Factors Influencing Interviewers’ Judgments Contrast Error Poor Job Knowledge Pressure for Hire
What Does Work Well? • Structured interview • Good questions (experience-based) • Good answers (anchored rubric) • Note-taking • Training
What We Often Do… Interview Decision/ Judgment Affective Characteristics Inter-Related Factors Responses to Questions Anticipated Response Research Knowledge/ Training Gut Instinct Questions How decisions frequently are made in interviews School Needs
What We Should Do… An Alternative Way to Make Decisions Question Response Other Influences Gut Instinct Anticipated Response Research School Needs Interview-Related Factors Affective Characteristics Judgment
Four Compelling Reasons for Structured Interview Protocols • Reliability– structured interviews tend to have higher inter-rater reliability than unstructured interviews • Standardization – structured interviews place more burden on the instrument than a particular interviewer’s interviewing and assessment skills • Fairness– structured interviews treat applicants in a consistent manner • Evidence-based - structured interviews focus on evidence from prompts to determine adequacy of answers. Source: Hough,& Oswald (2000); Le, Oh, Shaffer, & Smith (2007).
Increasing the Validity and Reliability of Interviews CONTENT ACTIONS PROCESS ACTIONS 1. Ask the same questions of each candidate (i.e., structured interview protocol). 1. Base interview questions on a job analysis. 2. Use detailed rating scales, with behavioral descriptions to illustrate scale points. 2. Take notes that focus on behavioral information about candidates (collect evidence). 3. Use statistical weights for each dimension, as well as an overall judgment of suitability, to combine information. 3. Use multiple interviewers. 4. Do not discuss candidates or answers between interviews. 4. Provide training on interviewing and the protocol.
Add’l Source Reference Checks Hiring Process Applicant Pool Applicant Pool Completed Applications Completed Applications • Interviews • Screening • Building • Superintendent Qualities of Effective Teachers Add’l Source Performance Task(s) Decision
Our Goal in Hiring? Hire effective teachers!
Qualities of Effective Teachers EFFECTIVE TEACHERS Job Responsibilities and Practices Background Classroom Management & Organization 12% Prerequisites 3% Implementing Instruction 12% The Person 18% Monitoring Student Progress & Potential 11% Planning for Instruction 8% Other 36% Note: Convenience sample of Hiring Workshop Participants (N=219)
Stronge Teacher Performance Standards Used in Teacher Interview Protocols • Instructional Planning • Instructional Delivery • Learning Environment • Assessment of/for Learning • Professionalism
Hiring Steps Recruitment: Applicant Pool Job Offer! Add’l Sources (as needed) Comprehensive interview Screening interview Credential review of applications and/or resumes
What is the basis? Stronge Hiring Protocol
MainComponents Area Prompt Options Sample Quality Indicators Interview Appraisal Rubric
Protocol Appraisal Rubrics How are interview responses in the Stronge Hiring Protocol rated?
The Interview Appraisal Rubrics • Used to categorize and rate responses • Four rating categories • Each has point value associated