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Revolt and Reform

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  1. Revolt and Reform Europe: 1848 Ch. 21

  2. Food Riots in Ireland, 1846

  3. Wave 3 --- the Climax --- 1848 The Watershed of the 19th Century • Everywhere BUT… (see map) • Issues same as 1789 – end of Ancien Regime • But now irrepressible – 1848 – beginning of new age • Why? • Severe food shortages (e.g. potato blight, poor grain harvests) • Financial crises / business failures / unemployment • Living conditions deteriorating in cities • Nationalism (e.g. Germany / Italy / Eastern Europe)

  4. Wave 3 : France February 1848 • King Louis Philippe and Chief Minister, Guizot refuse to bring electoral reform (bourgeois monarchy) • February 22-23 – street riots • February 24 – Louis Philippe (like Charles X) abdicates • Provisional Government declares “2nd Republic” • Louis Blanc: worker rep. pushes for National Workshops • Unemployment relief – women excluded – by June 200,000 non-working men in Paris • April = Constituent Assembly – Lamartine - anti-socialism • Gov’t closes National Workshops • “June Days”: New Revolution, seems class warfare – prefigures Russia • Gen. Cavaignac instates dictatorship and crushes revolt (10,000 dead) – victory for conservatives • Constituent Assembly calls universal suffrage vote: • Landslide for Louis Napoleon Bonaparte – Napoleon’s nephew

  5. Louis Napoléon, The President

  6. France: From President to Authoritarian • Louis Napoleon “The Pretender” – the Legend • consolidated support (though with the Assembly) • Middle class: he was a strong authority vs. socialists and workers • Army: he later used it to control assembly • Church: he increased role in education – army defends Rome • Peasants: he promised support, though actually revoked the vote at first • December 1851: Coup d’etat vs. Assembly • Louis Napoleon re-“elected” president

  7. From Authoritarian to Emperor • Modifying the Constitution • Louis Napoleon becomes head of the armed forces • Dissolves Legislative Assembly – new Legislative Corps with controlled elections every ten years • Restores universal suffrage • December 1852 • Plebiscite “elects” Emperor Napoleon III • l’Empire, c’est la paix “The Empire means peace”

  8. Emperor Napoléon III

  9. Wave 3 : Austrian Empire 1848 • Vienna, March 1848 --- begins in Hungary • Louis Kossuth: Speech on liberties 3/3 • Vienna riot by workers and students 3/13 • Ferdinand I (1835-48) capitulates – offers reforms • Metternich flees in disguise! --- TOTAL CHAOS • Berlin, March 15, 1848 riots • Hungary, March 15, 1848 – constitutional separatism (led by Kossuth) • Bohemia, March 1848 – Prague Conference & Austroslavism (Windishgrätz crushes rebellion) • Italy March 23 Charles Albert of Sardinia (Savoy) declares war on Austria • BUT – revolutionary groups fail – b/c Hungary filled with minority Serbs, Croats, Romanians vs. Hungary • October: Ferdinand abdicates for nephew Franz Joseph – 18 years old (1848-1916) restored as emperor --- Russia helps subdue Hungary

  10. Wave 3: Risorgimento in Italy • Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872) • Young Italy, 1831 = creation of Italian republic • Duties of Man “O my Brother! Love your Country. Our Country is our home.” • Cristina Belgioioso – published Italian newspaper from Paris • Revolutions • Sicily – Lombardy – Venetia • King Charles Albert of Piedmont leads war of liberation vs. Austria BUT…defeated March 1849 – abdicates-Victor Emmanuel II now KING • Revolutionaryies turn to Pope Pius IX…BUT Count Rossi assassinated, Pius fless and ROMAN REPUBLIC est. under Mazzini and Garibaldi – FRANCE liberates Rome in July 3 • Revolutions FAIL– only Piedmont keeps liberal constitution

  11. Wave 3 : Berlin & German Confederation 1848 • Pre 1848 – liberals pro constitutional monarchy • After France – liberals revolt in Berlin • Frederick William IV (1840-1861) vacillates • Offers to be part of new German State --- not enough • April 1849 dissolves assembly, proclaims own constitution • German States call National Assembly in Frankfurt: revolutionary • Kleindeutschvs. Grossdeutsch • March 1849 National Assembly elects King Fred. Wm of Prussia as emperor of new German State (Austria / Schleswig-Holstein not included) • Fred. Wm. reasserts royal authority – but not as emperor! • Austria demands Prussian allegiance, Prussia caves • “Humiliation of Olmutz” German Confederation re-established UNITY = TOTAL FAILURE

  12. Some Reasons for Failure of 1848 • Revolutionaries split ranks – liberals vs. radicals • No universal male suffrage (except France) • Liberals fear social revolution • Ethnic issues not addressed • Esp. in Austria: use ethnic tension in Hungary against Hungarian nationalist movement