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9.3 Expansion in Texas

9.3 Expansion in Texas. Spain’s American Empire. 1800s: Spanish colonies rebelled and established independent governments. The Mission System. Prior to Mexican independence

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9.3 Expansion in Texas

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  1. 9.3 Expansion in Texas

  2. Spain’s American Empire 1800s: Spanish colonies rebelled and established independent governments

  3. The Mission System Prior to Mexican independence • Spanish missionaries had tried to convert Natives and have them settle on mission land that was protected by Spanish soldiers Newly independent Mexico • Ended the system and tried to force the NAs to remain as unpaid laborers

  4. The NAs response • Terrorize Mexican and American settlers

  5. Mexico’s issues • Government struggled from the beginning • Mexican government found it difficult to control the border providences (problems between Natives and settlers) • Wanted more Mexicans to move to the northern border

  6. Mexico had a solid trade relationship with the United States

  7. Mexico looked to the USA • In order to protect its northern territory, the Mexican government encouraged Americans to settle in TX • Empresarios received huge land grants, which they then sold to Americans for VERY CHEAP • Americans only had to pledge to obey Mexican law and observe the Roman Catholic Church • 1830: More Americans lived in TX than Mexicans!

  8. Stephen Austin • The most successful empresario • Established Texas’s Old Three Hundred

  9. 2 very different groups Mexicans • Catholic • Anti slavery Americans • Protestant • Pro-slavery

  10. Americans ignored Mexican lawsand people became suspicious that the US wanted to annex Texas

  11. By 1830 • Mexico closed its borders to Americans and placed a huge tariff on American goods

  12. But couldn’t stop American immigration • 1835: Texas’s population = • 3,500 Tejanos • 12,000 Natives • 5,000 African Americans • 45,000 Anglos

  13. Meanwhile… • Mexico’s government was growing more unstable • Stephen Austin met with President Santa Anna and petitioned for more self-government for TX • Austin was arrested for inciting revolution • Santa Anna revoked local powers in TX and rebellions erupted

  14. Texas Revolution

  15. Santa Anna led an army of 4,000 into TX • Austin called Texans to arm themselves • 1835: Austin drove the Mexican forces out…

  16. Santa Anna responded by storming the Alamo- ALL of the defenders were killed

  17. March 1836 • Santa Anna executed 300 rebels at Goliad

  18. Texans rallied behind the Alamo and Goliad

  19. Sam Houston • Led troops at the Battle of Jacinto • Texans killed 630 Mexicans in 18 minutes and captured Santa Anna • Signed the Treaty of Velasco: Texas was independent! • 1st president of Texas

  20. Texas Enters the Union • 1838: Houston invited the USA to annex TX • Sectionalist debate erupted • Slavery and War with Mexico (MX did not recognize Texas as an independent nation) • 1845: TX was admitted into the Union

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