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Morphology: Cross-linguistic variation

Morphology: Cross-linguistic variation

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Morphology: Cross-linguistic variation

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  1. Morphology: Cross-linguistic variation Linguistics 200 Spring 2003

  2. More word formation types • How are new words created? What is the structure of existing words? • More types of morphology • Infixation • Reduplication • Portmanteau morphemes • Ablaut • Position class morphology • Simultaneous morphology

  3. Infixation Ulwa possessive forms

  4. Ulwa Infixation

  5. Infixation: placement of the infix  marks primary stress; -ka- ‘his/her’

  6. Infixation: placement of the infix • In Ulwa, possessive affixes follow the stressed syllable (infixation as a special case of suffixation)

  7. Reduplication RED (reduplicant): • a morpheme which copies the phonological segments of the root it is attached to • partial reduplication (affixational) vs. total reduplication (compounding)

  8. Total reduplication • Sahaptin inanimate plurals • [p’u] ‘teardrop’ • [p’úp’u] ‘teardrops’ • English: ‘real, true’ • red red (vs. blue red) • home home • India Indian

  9. Partial reduplication: suffixing Chukchee (Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Russia) -RED = absolutive singular (of noun)

  10. Partial reduplication: prefixing Klamath (Penutian, Oregon) RED- = plural subjects of verbs

  11. Partial reduplication: Prefixing Yoruba (Niger-Congo, Nigeria) RED- nouns derived from verbs Prespecification: part of RED is phonologically fixed; part of RED copies the root [V] = high tone vowel, [V] = low tone vowel, [V] = mid tone vowel

  12. Reduplication summary • Total reduplication  compounding • Partial reduplication  affixation • prefixing reduplication • suffixing reduplication • infixing reduplication

  13. Portmanteau morphemes • Single phonological representation corresponds to two meanings.  • Verb paradigms in Sekani (Athabaskan): • (‘paradigm’ = set of related items) perfective  past; imperfective  present; optative  subjunctive)

  14. Portmanteau morphemes [] = voiced velar fricative i- 1s.perfective; s- 1s

  15. Witsuwit’en • (Athabaskan, British Columbia)

  16. Witsuwit’en morphology • Morphological processes • affixation • compounding • ablaut

  17. Witsuwit’en morphology • Affixable lexical categories • nouns • verbs • postpositions • directional adverbs • adjectives

  18. Ablaut = Root-internal vowel substitution English present past past participle sing sang have sung ring rang have rung

  19. Ablaut in Witsuwit’en verb root impf/opt perfective future -/qes/ ‘scratch hard’ –[qes] –[qez] –[q«s] -/q«z/ ‘do with arms’ –[qis] –[q«z] –[q«s] Ablaut pattern: /i/ replaces /«/ in the imperfective/optative /«/ replaces /e/ in the future

  20. Affixation to nouns A possessive paradigm:

  21. Morphological analysis

  22. Prepositions and postpositions Prepositions: preposition - nouncount for me  verb preposition noun Postpositions: noun – postposition. Witsuwit’en: [s- pe c’ot«w]me for you (sg.) count noun postposition verb ‘count for me’

  23. Affixation to postpositions

  24. Morphological analysis

  25. Morphological analysis (revised) Prefixes to nouns/postpositions:

  26. Nouns vs. postpositions 1. y- 3sg. object of postposition vs. p- 3sg. possessor • -le ‘hand’(noun) vs. -le ‘hand to’(postposition) • ple yunqhat ‘he slapped his hand’ he slapped it • yle yinay ‘he handed it to him’ he handed it

  27. Nouns vs. postpositions 2. t- reflexive (‘-self’) • -Â ‘with’ (postposition) vs. -Âtsen ‘brother’ (noun) • tÂ neyecltc ‘I’m talking to myself’ • tÂ neyeltc ‘she’s talking to herself’ • sÂtsen pq’Esy’ ‘I love my brother’ • tÂtsen yq’Entsy’ ‘she loves her brother’ • t- 3 person reflexive with nouns; t- reflexive with postpositions

  28. Affixation to verbs • Unusual features • Position class morphology: (prefix order restrictions) prefix- prefix- ...-verb root-suffix (position 1) (position 2) etc. • Discontinuous morphemes

  29. Some verbs (dictionary entry) • -yin 'sg./du. stand' • -tseq ‘be lightweight’ • -/as ‘du./group goes, walks’ • O-u-yin ‘pick O (berries) while stationary’ • d-d-/as ‘du. pick berries (while walking around)’ O = object

  30. Some verbs (actual words) • Minimal verb word: dictionary form of verb+‘tense’ • [sa n«/a] ‘the sun/moon is going’ • sa ‘sun, moon’ • -a 'sun, moon goes' • n«- continuative (‘round-trip’) • [sa ia] ‘the sun/moon is moving' • i-...- progressive

  31. Position class morphology Verb prefix positions: postposition/adverbial – iterative – multiple plural – negative – incorporated root – inceptive – distributive plural – pronominal object/subject – qualifier – tense/neg – subject – valence Root Suffix positions: negative - tense [sa ia] ‘the sun/moon is moving' i- tense + -a root + -  tense

  32. Some more verb words 1. [tci uyin] 'he/she is picking huckleberries' [tci] ‘huckleberries’ O-u-yin 'pick O (berries) while stationary‘ O- u - yin (object required) qualifier –root - imperfective (tense position)   Ø / u ___ Prefix positions: postposition/adverbial – iterative – multiple plural – negative – incorporated root – inceptive – distributive plural – pronominal object/subject – qualifier –tense/neg – subject – valence Root Suffix positions: negative - tense

  33. 2. [c'oyin] 'he/she is picking' c'- unspecified object (pronominal object/subject position) (c’ + u  c’o) Prefix positions: postposition/adverbial – iterative – multiple plural – negative – incorporated root – inceptive – distributive plural – pronominal object/subject –qualifier –tense/neg – subject – valence Root Suffix positions: negative - tense

  34. 3. [c'onyin] 'he/she is picking (round things)' n- round object (optional) (qualifier position) Prefix positions: postposition/adverbial – iterative – multiple plural – negative – incorporated root – inceptive – distributive plural – pronominal object/subject –qualifier –tense/neg – subject – valence Root Suffix positions: negative - tense

  35. 4. [wec'onsyin’] 'he/she isn't picking (round things)' we- negative (negative position) s- non-perfective negative (tense position) - (negative position) n + / n’ Prefix positions: postposition/adverbial – iterative – multiple plural – negative – incorporated root – inceptive – distributive plural – pronominal object/subject –qualifier –tense/neg – subject – valence Root Suffix positions: negative- tense

  36. 5. [wec'onzsyin’] 'I'm not picking (round things)' s- 1sg. subject (subject position) /s/  [z] / ___ V Prefix positions: postposition/adverbial – iterative – multiple plural – negative – incorporated root – inceptive – distributive plural – pronominal object/subject –qualifier –tense/neg –subject – valence Root Suffix positions: negative - tense

  37. 6. [wec'onthzisyit] 'I won't pick (round things)‘ th- future (qualifier position) i- (tense position) - (tense position) // + / t /n/  Ø / ___ C]syllable Prefix positions: postposition/adverbial – iterative – multiple plural – negative – incorporated root – inceptive – distributive plural – pronominal object/subject –qualifier –tense/neg –subject – valence Root Suffix positions: negative - tense

  38. Morphological structure 'I'm not going to pick (round) things' negative round 1 sg. subject [we- c’- o- n- th- [] z- i- s- yi -t -] unspecified object future ‘pick (berries) while stationary’

  39. Witsuwit’en summary • Lexical categories: nouns vs. postpositions • Ablaut • Affixation • with nouns, postpositions: relatively simple (one or two bound morphemes per word) • with verbs: multiple prefixes possible, prefixes strictly ordered (position classes), discontinuous morphemes