What you said about how this class could be better “If the people were quiet” “If people do not talk so we can listen to the directions.” “If I pay attention more” “If I get more into the lessons and stop spacing out.” “If I would listen more” “If Ms. Heyer put the students who are not participating in their assignment out of the classroom.” “If nobody was talking so much.”
RS 17:416.18 — Educators' right to teach (3) A teacher has the right to remove any persistently disruptive student from his classroom when the student's behavior prevents the orderly instruction of other students or when the student displays impudent or defiant behavior and to place the student in the custody of the principal or his designee pursuant to R.S. 17:416(A)(1)(c).
RS 17:416.18 — Educators' right to teach (6) A teacher has the right to be treated with civility and respect as provided in R.S. 17:416.12. RS 17:416:12 B. When any public school student is speaking with any public school system employee while on school property or at a school sponsored event, such student shall address and respond to such public school system employee by using the respectful terms "Yes, Ma'am" and "No, Ma'am" or "Yes, Sir" and "No, Sir", as appropriate, or "Yes, Miss, Mrs., or Ms. (Surname)" and "No, Miss, Mrs., or Ms. (Surname)" or "Yes, Mr. (Surname)" and "No, Mr. (Surname)", as appropriate, each such title to be followed by the appropriate surname.
RS 17:416.18 — Educators' right to teach (7) A teacher has the right to communicate with and to request the participation of parents in appropriate student disciplinary decisions pursuant to R.S. 17:235.1 and 416(A). RS 17:416(A)(1)(c)(iv) When a pupil is removed from a classroom pursuant to this Subparagraph, the teacher may require that the parent, tutor, or legal guardian of the pupil have a conference with the teacher in the presence of the principal or his designee before the pupil is readmitted.
If you interrupt instruction You will be given one warning. Your name will go on the board. The second time I have to correct you, it is an automatic detention. If you continue to interrupt you will be sent to TOR. All work that you miss from that class period will receive a zero. You will not be allowed back into the classroom until I have spoken with your parents about your behavior. Any other ideas??????????/
The First Inhabitants of Louisiana From the beginning of time until 1492
How do we know about the past? An Archaeologist at Work • Archaeology • The study of past human cultures • Archaeologists study ARTIFACTS • Artifacts are objects produced or shaped by human craft, especially a tool, weapon or ornament of archaeological or historical significance
Types of Artifacts 2000 Year Old Pottery Arrowheads
Archaeology in Louisiana Knowledge of prehistoric Native Americans culture comes through the careful study of ____________. European explorers recorded observations in ___________________________________, ___________________________________, and _________________________________. Those first-hand accounts, along with sketches and artifacts, provide more detailed information about ___________________________________.
Archaeology in Louisiana Knowledge of prehistoric Native Americans culture comes through the careful study of artifacts. European explorers recorded observations in letters, diaries and government reports. Those first-hand accounts, along with sketches and artifacts, provide more detailed information about Historic Indian Cultures.
Paleo Period (10000-6000 B.C.) Last great Ice Age ends. Paleo Indians arrive in Louisiana. Ice Age animals become extinct.
The Paleo People The Landbridge from Asia to North America Lived from 10,000-6.,000 B.C. During the Ice Age when ocean levels dropped, Siberian people migrated across the land bridge to Alaska in search of game. Some moved by water down the coast all the way to the tip of South America.
The Paleo People Slaying a Wooly Mammoth Paleo Indians spoke a developed language, made fine clothing of skins, baskets of split cane, spear points and tools of flint and wove cloth from palmetto fibers. They were nomads who hunted big game and traveled in small extended-family groups of 30-40 people.
John Pearce Site Arrowhead • Well Preserved Paleo Site • Contains artifacts but no human bones • Artifacts are also found in Macon Ridge and the Piney Hills • Including spear points, knife blades and scrapers
Archaic Period (6000-2000 B.C.) Modern Louisiana climate and landforms are in place. Indians become hunter gatherers. First Indian mounds are built in America. Stonehenge and Egyptian pyramids are constructed in the Old World.
Archaic Indians They were hunter gatherers meaning they survived by hunting and gathering food, who enjoyed a rich, varied diet. The warming climate made this possible. Food was plentiful, so they didn’t need to travel as much and probably moved with the seasons over a smaller area.
Archaic Genius Atlatl A tool used to aid in spear throwing The atlatl is an example of ancient technology Practiced maximum forest efficiency, meaning they used everything the land had to offerand developed a variety of new weapons and tools including the atlatl. They were the original mound builders.
Watson Brake LSU Indian Mounds Built for religious reasons as platforms for temples and to bury the dead Located near the Ouachita River Eleven mounds were discovered to have organic material dating back to 3500 B.C. Among the oldest mounds in the United States. Indian Mounds were also found on Louisiana State University campus.
Neo Period (2000 B.C.-1492 A.D.) Last prehistoric period of Native Americans. Poverty Point and other cultures rise and fall. Pottery and bow and arrow are introduced. Agriculture is adopted. Mound building reaches its peak. Greek and Roman civilizations rise and fall in the Old World.
The Poverty Point Culture Located in East Carroll Parish near Epps Today, it is an historic site. Six huge earthen ridges built in a semi-circle next to Bayou Macon. They were hunter-gathers and Poverty Point was a giant trading center. The Poverty Point culture dominated the Mississippi Valley.
The Tchefuncte Culture (600 B.C.-200 A.D.) Tchefuncte Hut Appeared after the collapse of the Poverty Point culture. Hunter gatherers Sites on the Gulf Coast have thick shell middens. Middens were created when people lived in one place for a long time. They ate so many mussels and clams that piles of their shells built up ridges—Shell middens First Louisiana Indians to make large amounts of pottery.
The Hopewell and Marksville Cultures (200 B.C.-400 A.D.) Marksville Indians Lived in the Ohio River Valley. Established a complex trade system, built large mounds and earthworks, buried artifact and their dead, and organized powerful governments. Culture spread and was adapted by the Marksville culture. Marksville State Historic Site
The Troyville-Coles Creek Culture (400-1100 A.D.) Replaces the Marksville culture. Built more, larger mounds enclosed inside an earthen rampart (levee) Began cultivating plants such as squash, sunflowers, and gourds Marked the beginning of agriculture, which ended Indians’ nomadic lifestyle. Introduced bow and arrow.
More Native Americans The Caddo Culture (800 A.D.-Present) The Plaquemine-Mississippian Culture (1000-1500 A.D.) Indians in northwest Louisiana Very sophisticated people Complex social class system and powerful rulers Farmers and traders Farmed and lived in villages
The 6 Indian Tribes in Louisiana • The Caddo • Six tribes in northwest Louisiana, southwest Arkansas, east Texas, and southeast Oklahoma • Trading was important • The Attakapas “man-eater” • Lived in southwest Louisiana and the Texas Gulf Coast. • They were cannibals, which means they ate human flesh • The Chitimacha • Lived in south-central Louisiana along Bayou Teche and the Atchafalaya River. • They farmed, and hunted, and fished
The 6 Indian Tribes in Louisiana • Muskogean • Lived in southeast Louisiana around Lake Pontchartrain and the Florida Parishes. • Tribes include the Choctaw, Bayougoula, Tangipahoa, Coushatta, Houma, and Quinipissas-Mugalashas • The Natchez • Main village was located near modern-day Natchez, Mississippi • Farmers with a complex class system • Worshipped the sun • The Tunica • They were great traders • Lived in modern day Angola Parish • Joined with another tribe and became Tunica-Biloxi
SILENT READING TIMEgo to page 89Use your study guide / Guided NotesRead to page 93
Historic Indian Culture • Agriculture • Grew three basic crops—corn, beans, and squash. • Indians used a method called mound farming. • The nutrients one crop absorbs from the soil, another replaces. • Diet • Indians probably ate a healthier, better balanced diet than most Europeans. • Soups, breads, cakes, dumplings, hominy, and corn dishes were their favorite foods. • They at fish, deer, and buffalo. • They wasted nothing. • Villages • Some settlements were large cities, while others were just a few homes. • The settlements included family dwellings as well as larger public buildings. • The construction of a dwelling varied according to the tribe and the season.
Personal Appearance Men were about five-and-a-half feet tall. Women were about five feet. They wore breechcloths or skirts. Both were bare-chested. Hairstyles were very important and had significant social meaning. They adorned themselves in shell, stone, pearls, and large spools. They had elaborate tattoos.
Religion They believed in animism. Most have a creation story. Animism teaches that people associate with spirits every day. Shamans are priests or holy people who interact with spirits to ask for help and special favors.
Society and Women Some tribes has several chiefs. They has a complex class system. It was relatively easy for Indians to move up through the class system. Women had great power and influence. They also did most of the work. They had a matriarchal system, so women usually owned the houses, fields, and crops. Chiefs and property descended through the mother’s bloodline. A woman had the right to divorce her husband.
Clans and Family Each family believed it descended from a particular animal. Within each tribe were different clans that were like large extended families. Ancestors were honored, and elders were respected. Children were never whipped, but they were punished in other ways. They were usually raised by their mother’s brother who taught and disciplined them. Their biological father was like an uncle because he was his sister’s children.
Crime and Punishment Thieves might be beaten or forced to replace stolen items. Minor crimes were sometimes settled by the guilty party giving the victim a gift. Only rape, incest, murder, or witchcraft deserved the death penalty.
Archaeology Activity Take an item from your booksack and answer the following questions about it. Read your answers to the class and see if they can guess what the object is Who might have owned or used and item like this? What might its purpose have been? Where did it come from or how was it created? What does this item say about the culture’s values, wants or needs?