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Food quality control. Dr K N Prasad Community Medicine. Approaches . Scientific approach Administrative approach Legal approach Educational approach. Food fortification Food additives Food adulteration. Food Fortification.

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food quality control

Food quality control

Dr K N Prasad

Community Medicine

  • Scientific approach
  • Administrative approach
  • Legal approach
  • Educational approach
Food fortification
  • Food additives
  • Food adulteration
food fortification
Food Fortification
  • Food fortification is the process whereby nutrients are added to food ( relatively in small quantities) to maintain or improve the quality of the diet of a group , community or population.
  • It is a public health measure to prevent or control some nutritional disorders
criteria for fortification
Criteria for fortification
  • Vehicle must be a part of the regular daily diet by relevant section of the population.
  • Amount of nutrient added must provide an effective supplement for low consumers of the vehicle
  • Not harmful to high consumers
  • Do not cause noticeable change in the taste, smell, appearance or consistency
  • Cost should be economical
  • Fluoridation of drinking water in endemic areas to prevent dental caries
  • Iodisation of salt to prevent IDD
  • Vitamin A fortification of Vanaspathi
  • Iron to salt or Flour
  • Food enrichment: Bread etc.
food additives
Food Additives
  • Food additives are non nutritious substances which are added intentionally to food , generally in small quantity to improve its appearance , flavor, texture of storage properties.
  • This is the concept of pickling or drying
  • When it is in excess amounts to adulteration
food additives1
Food additives
  • Traditionally- Salt, Oil, Turmeric are used
  • Modern Science- food processing industries use more additives to increase shelf life of food, improve taste, texture or colour.
classification of additives
Classification of additives
  • Coloring agents: considered as safe for human consumption
  • Flavoring agents: sweeteners ( Saccharin), Preservatives( Sorbic acid, Sodium Benzoate), acidity imparting agents ( Citric acid, Acetic acid)
  • Pose health hazards among consumers - contaminants through packing, processing steps, farming practices ( insecticides)
regulations in india
Regulations in India

Punishable if

  • Food containing additive which is not permitted
  • Exceeding the concentration of additives used in the food
  • Information on the label gives false confidence among users
  • FAO & WHO Codex Alimentarius are its principal organs for control
food adulteration
Food adulteration
  • Definition: Mixing, substitution, abstraction, concealing the quality , putting up decomposed food for sale, misbranding or giving false labeling and addition of toxicants to food, which are having adverse effect on the health of the consumer is called as food adulteration.
  • Paying more money for a lower quality foodstuffs
  • Some forms of adulteration are injurious to health
  • Practices vary from one part of the country to another , from time to time.
food adulterants
Food adulterants
  • Extraneous matter - 5%
  • Insect damaged matter – 5%
  • Ash insoluble in HCl.
  • Extraneous matter – max permissible limit
  • Inorganic(2%) – dirt, dust, stones, lumps of earth
  • Organic(3%) – foreign edible seeds, stems, stalks, straw, leaf matters, other food grains
factors responsible
Factors responsible
  • Ignorance – metallic yellow or Rhodopsin B dye to color the sweets in villages
    • Storing food grains in pesticides stored bags
    • Negligence – cooking in un tinned vessels
    • Storing food articles in containers without covers
  • inadvertence & Deliberate fraud – cannot be easily detected

Adulterants used in Food

Milk - Addition of water/removal of fat.Skim milk - soluble starch.Cream -foreign fats.Ghee -Hydrogenated fat/animal fat.Vegetable oils -Cheap/non edible oil like linseed, mineral oils.Wheat and rice -stonesBengal gram dhal -Kesari dhal.Chilli powder- Starch colored red by tar dye.Black pepper- Dried papaya seedsHoney -colored sugar syrup.Tea - exhausted tea leaves.

prevention pfa
Prevention – PFA
  • Amended in 1954, 1964, 1976, 1986
  • Objectives:
  • Protect the consumer against any health hazards arising out of adulteration
  • Protect the consumer from fraudulent trade practices
  • Ensure and enforce fair trace practices
functions of pfa
Functions of PFA


  • Manufacture or processing under strict hygienic conditions
  • Retention of maximum nutritive value
  • Freedom from toxic effects
  • Elimination of contaminants of different kinds
  • Packaging under sanitary conditions
  • Marketing of food with suitable labeling requirements ( nutritive value, weight, date of mfr, composition, instructions for use etc.)
actions at various levels pfa
Actions at various Levels (PFA)
  • Central, state and local levels
  • Central level- central committee for food standards.
    • Setting standards for foods, co ordination , monitoring and surveillance of program
  • State level- implementation & surveillance, training, laboratory services , analysis , punishments
  • Local level- sample collection, enforcement, surveillance, inspection, education to public
punishments for food adulteration
Punishments for food adulteration
  • Imprisonment of 6 months with a fine of Rs 1000
  • Harm or death as a result of food adulteration - life imprisonment with fine up to Rs 5000
thought for the day
Thought for the day

Creativity begins with thinking different and progresses with acting different and

giving unique results

Infections were common among the sex workers, with a 25.7 percent prevalence of HIV and 22.5 percent prevalence of bacterial STDs: chlamydia 7.3 percent; gonorrhea 8.9 percent; and trichomonas 9.4 percent. Antibodies to herpes simplex virus-2 were detected in 57.2 percent of women.