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Review of the course. Preparation for final. What is language?. Communication of thoughts and feelings through a system of arbitrary signals, such as voice sounds, gestures, or written symbols. Linguistic Knowledge vs. Linguistic Performance (competence). There’s a distinction between

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Review of the course

Review of the course

Preparation for final

What is language
What is language?

  • Communication of thoughts and feelings through a system of arbitrary signals, such as voice sounds, gestures, or written symbols.

Linguistic knowledge vs linguistic performance competence
Linguistic Knowledge vs. Linguistic Performance (competence)

  • There’s a distinction between

    • What you know about “correct” and “incorrect” language

    • Your ability to always produce “correct” sentences.

Review of the course

Animal Languages(?)

A linguistic analysis

Design features of language
Design features of language

  • Design feature 1:

    Semanticity: In human language the elements of the message have specific and fixed relation to real-world situations.

    A message must be understood in the same way by different receivers.

Design features of language1
Design features of language

  • Design feature 2:

    Displacement/freedom from stimulus: In human language it is possible to talk about events remote in time and place.

  • Design feature 3:

    Productivity: In human language, new messages can be produced from the elements of familiar messages; there is no fixed set of possible messages

Design features of language2
Design features of language

  • Design feature 4:

    Dual articulation/duality of patterning: In human language, sounds can go together to make up words, words can go together to make up sentences. (In sign language, there is something similar.)

  • Design feature 5:

    Discreteness: Human language uses a small set of discrete contrastive elements.

Language and the brain

Language and the brain

Insights from Neurolinguistics

Anatomy of the brain
Anatomy of the brain

  • What is a hemisphere, and what is modularity/localization?

  • Who are Paul Broca and Carl Wernicke, and what did they find out?

  • What is Aphasia?

  • What is the relationship between brain development and language development?

  • Who is Noam Chomsky, and what is his theory?

  • What is the critical age hypothesis?

  • Who is Genie and what does her case prove?

What is aphasia
What is Aphasia?

  • Neurological term for disorders that follow brain lesions caused by, for example, strokes.

    • Only on left side

  • Broca’s Aphasia

    • labored speech, word-finding pauses, disturbed word order, difficulties with function word ‘to’, ‘if’

  • Wernicke’s Aphasia

    • fluently with good intonation & pronunciation but lexical errors: “Jargon aphasia”



The study of the structure of words

What are the building blocks in the formation of complex words
What are the building blocks in the formation of complex words?

  • Morphemes

    • The most elemental unit of a word

  • Morphology

    • Study of the internal structure; rules of word formation

Prefixes suffixes
Prefixes & Suffixes words?

  • Prefixes are added to the beginning

  • Suffixes are added to the end

  • One morpheme act

  • Two morphemes act + ive

  • Three morphemes act + ive+ate

  • Four morphemes de + act+ ive+ate

  • More than four:


Root morphemes vs affix morphemes
Root morphemes vs. Affix morphemes words?

  • What’s a root morpheme?

Note: -roots tend to be free and


-affixes tend to be bound and


practice words?

  • Identify the roots in the following words.

  • kingdom _________________________

  • interplanetary _________________________

  • dimensional _________________________

  • margins _________________________

Overview of all discussed distinctions
Overview of all discussed distinctions words?





-bound roots


lexical (root)


-eight suffixes





ex: -ness

practice words?

For each of the following bound morphemes, determine whether it is derivational or inflectional and give two words in which it appears:


-able: derivational bound morpheme

eat-able; cod(e)-able

  • –ish

  • _____________

  • _____________ _____________

  • –en

  • _____________

  • _____________ _____________

  • ab–

  • _____________

  • _____________ _____________

  • –ed

Word creation in english neologism
Word creation in English (Neologism) words?

  • Affixing

    • Adding affixes

    • Reducing Affixes (Backformation)

    • A new word created by removing an affix from an already existing word, as vacuum clean from vacuum cleaner,

  • Functional shift

  • Coined words

  • Acronyms

  • Borrowing

  • Blending


Syntax words?

An overview

Phrases words?










The friendly person

asked a question

Diagramming a sentence
Diagramming a Sentence words?











The friendly person

asked a question

Linear vs hierarchical structure
Linear vs. Hierarchical structure words?

  • Meaning

  • (1)A big sale of stereos (2) a sale of big stereos

    Big stereo sale Big stereo sale


Semantics words?

The meaning of language

Lexical relationships cohesive links
Lexical Relationships (cohesive links) words?

  • Synonyms

  • Antonyms

  • Homonyms (homophones)

  • Hyponymy

    • scarlet, vermilion, carmine, and crimson are all hyponyms of red (their hypernym), which is, in turn, a hyponym of color.

practice words?

  • Give two semantic properties for each of the following words. Use correct notation. (10)

  • a) prostitute ______________________________________

  • b) sailor ______________________________________

  • c) mountain ______________________________________

Connotation and denotation
connotation and denotation words?

  • Denotation and ConnotationDenotation refers to the literal meaning of a word, the "dictionary definition."¨ For example, if you look up the word snake in a dictionary, you will discover that one of its denotative meanings is "any of numerous scaly, legless, sometimes venomous reptiles¡Khaving a long, tapering, cylindrical body and found in most tropical and temperate regions."

  • Connotation, on the other hand, refers to the associations that are connected to a certain word or the emotional suggestions related to that word. The connotative meanings of a word exist together with the denotative meanings. The connotations for the word snake could include evil or danger.

Consonants and their phonetic description
Consonants and their phonetic description words?

  • How are phonemes produced?

  • Consonants are produced by obstructing the flow of air as it passes from the lungs through the vocal tract.

  • When we describe a consonant, one of the features we use is its place of articulation.

  • The other feature is the manner of articulation.

Manner of articulation
Manner of Articulation words?

  • Voiced and voiceless sounds

    • When the vocal cords are apart when speaking, air flows freely through the glottis. Sounds produced in this way are voiceless.

    • If the vocal cords are together, the airstream forces its way through and causes them to vibrate

  • Try it out: put your hand to

    your throat and produce a [z]

    sound as in “buzz”. Now do the

    same with [s] as in “bus”.

Affricates liquids and glides
Affricates,Liquids words?, and Glides

  • Affricates are produced by a stop which is followed immediately by gradual release of air. Stop + fricative = affricate

    • There are only two: [tʃ] and [dʒ]

  • Liquids

    • During the production of the sounds [l] and [r], there is no real obstruction of the airflow that causes friction. Hence, these sounds are not stops, fricatives or affricates. They are called liquids

  • Glides

    • Are not causing significant obstruction and are always followed by vowels.

    • [j] and [w]

Vowels words?

  • Vowel Qualities

  • The placement of the body of the tongue:

    • Vertical: high – mid – low

    • Horizontal: front – central – back

  • The shape of the lips:

    • Rounded – Unrounded

  • The degree of the vocal tract contraction:

    • Tense – Lax

practice words?

Write the phonetic symbol for the final sound

opposite __

knee __


chips __

welcome __

ugly __