History, science & solutions > 2013 briefing onMOVIE SMOKING Jono Polansky | Onbeyond LLC January 30, 2013 BC Healthy Living Alliance
What we’ll cover > | Science | Solutions History
History 192os-1990s Now owned by Major studios cross-promoted stars and films with tobacco companies… Paramount Warner Bros. Fox Columbia Universal OTHERS: MGM United Artists RKO Viacom Time Warner News Corp. Sony Comcast 1920 1930 1940 1950 Period source: Lum, Polansky, Jackler and Glantz (2008)
Humphrey Bogart Gary Cooper Bette Davis Henry Fonda Clark Gable Bob Hope Carole Lombard Myrna Loy Fred MacMurray Ray Milland George Raft Edward G. Robinson Barbara Stanwyck Gloria Swanson Spencer Tracy Jane Wyatt Etc. History 1920s-1990s 75% of top box office stars from 1930s and 1940s were on tobacco payrolls… 1920 1930 1940 1950
History 1920s-1990s With certain exceptions… Rin Tin Tin 1920 1930 1940 1950 Shirley Temple
History 1920s-1990s After US tobacco commercials were banned in 1970, tobacco firms systematically pursued movie placements. 500+ film productions were involved, with deals inside and outside US Millions of dollars in placement spending documented in tobacco industry files 1920 1930 1940 1950 19601970 1980 1990 2000 2010
History 1920s-1990s “No participating manufacturer may…make, or cause to be made, any payment or consideration to any other person or entity to use, display, make reference to or use as a prop any Tobacco Product, Tobacco Product package, advertisement for a Tobacco Product, or any other item bearing a Brand Name in any motion picture…” Master Settlement Agreement, 1998: MSA (1998) at III(e), “Prohibition on Payments Related to Tobacco Products and Media"
Science 2002-2012 1 | Intent: % of films with smoking 2 | Performance: Tobacco incidents 3 | Impact: Tobacco impressions Three rulers for films
Science Nations where movies have been linked with youth smoking England Germany China, Hong Kong SAR Iceland India Italy Mexico New Zealand Poland Scotland Thailand The Netherlands United States Population studies cited in WHO. Smoke-free Movies: From evidence to action (2011)
Science 2002-2012 1,575 Total with smoking Number of top-grossing films 941 (60%)
Science 2002-2012 72% Percent smoking, 2012 Percent smoking, 2002 49%
Science 2002-2012 Percent of films with smoking
Science 2002-2012 30,001 In youth-rated films Number of tobacco incidents 13,099 (44%)
Science 2002-2012 Tobacco incidents by film rating
Science 2002-2012 33 Incidents per film (PG-13) 16 Incidents per film (G/PG) Incidents per film (R-rated) 4 To control for fluctuating number of films by rating and company each year, total incidents are divided by the number of films, smoking and smokefree.
Science 2002-2012 Tobacco incidents per film
Science 2002-2012 240 billion Delivered by youth-rated films In-theater tobacco impressions 138 billion (58%) Impressions = Tobacco incidents in film X Paid admissions to film in first-run theatrical release, domestic (US 90% and Canada 10%). As they do not include home video and other channels for viewing films, in-theater impressions are an index of exposure. In the US, about 25% of these impressions are estimated to be delivered to children and adolescents.
Science 2002-2012 Billions Tobacco impressions by rating
In 2011-2012, 86% of movies with smoking were youth-rated in BC. Sample: All films ranking in the top 10 in box office gross each week of 2011-12 in the US also exhibited in British Columbia (n=269). Sources: IMDbPro.com, MPAA, TUTD, CPBC. Analysis by Onbeyond LLC for UCSF CTCRE.
As a result, 91% of tobacco impressions in BC were delivered by youth-rated films. Tobacco impressions = tobacco incidents per film X paid admissions per film. Analysis by Onbeyond LLC for UCSF CTCRE.
Science 2002-2012 Attributable risk: 37% (95% CI 0.25-0.52) • 400,000 past-month US smokers 12-17 were recruited by exposure to on-screen smoking • 125,000 of this group are projected to die from tobacco-induced diseases More studies. Narrower confidence interval. Overlaps previous estimate. http://tobacco.ucsf.edu/updated-attributable-risk-smoking-due-movies-37
Science — Current Harm from on-screen smoking US prevalence and population: NDUH State Estimates, 2009-10, Table C.14; US Census. Canada data: Statistics Canada, census; Health Canada, prevalence, Tobacco Monitoring Survey, 2011
Science — Current Cost of on-screen smoking Cost of current smokers 15-19 recruited by exposure to on-screen smoking. 110,000 current adolescent Canadian smokers X $28,000 in health costs.
Science— Current BC’s contribution, 2002-12 BC-located and subsidized top-grossing films vs. all top-grossing films released in the domestic (Canada + US) market), 2002-2012
Solutions Studios’ contributions, 2012 Preliminary results
Solutions 2002-2012 Studio-based policies
Solutions 2002-2012 Similar Do studio-based policies matter? Similar Studios with and without policies before 2012
Solutions Status Adult-rate all future movies with smoking. Except (1) actual historical figures who smoked; (2) dire health consequences No films up-rated for smoking; some obscure labeling R-RATING STRONG ANTI-TOBACCO SPOTS Should precede any film with smoking, regardless of rating, in all media Spots on some DVDs in US and Canada Cease tobacco brand display/reference No studio pledges NO BRANDS Certify no consideration for tobacco depictions/references in the film CERTIFY NO PAYOFFS Declarations limited to studio-distributors More info: www.smokefreemovies.ucsf.edu/solution
Solutions Status Make future productions with tobacco imagery ineligible for tax credits and other public subsidies Policy advocacy in US and Europe FILM PRODUCTION SUBSIDIES Subsidies in a dozen countries, including Canada and its provinces, help pay for almost all big-budget US films. BC spends $50-100 million on tax credits annually, with tens of millions going to movies that recruit new young smokers. See Physicians for Smoke-Free Canada (2009), Millet et al (2011), Polansky & Glantz (2012)
Subsidies have tripled to 33% since 2004. BC dominates feature film production. Estimated on published production budgets of top-grossing films primarily produced in BC, Ontario and Québec. Sources: IMDbPro.com, entertainment trade press.
In 10 years, BC tax credits for films with smoking may have totaled $175 million. In 2012 $ (Bank of Canada). Estimated on effective Production Services Tax Credit rates for years shown (BC Film Activity Reports) and published film production budget estimates (IMDbPro.com and trade press). Tobacco content: TUTD. Analysis by Onbeyond LLC for UCSF CTCRE. Limitations include uncertainties about actual BC production spends and the year tax credits were qualified for and/or actually awarded vs. film release year. .
Solutions Endorses all five policy goals, including film subsidy reform. “Public subsidy of media productions known to promote youth smoking initiation is counter to WHO FCTC Article 13 and its guidelines. Public support for…media producers…should be harmonized with…fundamental public health imperative[s].” World Health Organization WHO. Smoke-free Movies: From evidence to action (2011)
Solutions “An MPAA policy to give films with smoking an adult (R) rating, as recommended by [the World Health Organization, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention], and other authorities, could eliminate youth-rated films as sources of exposure to on-screen smoking imagery and reduce the exposure of youth to smoking in movies.” — March 8, 2012 US Surgeon General Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults
Solutions “Given the scientific evidence...the [film] industry cannot justify failing to eliminate smoking from youth-rated movies. Whether this is accomplished through meaningful, consistently enforced policies adopted by each studio across the industry, or through a change in the way movies are rated, or both, the bottom line is that action needs to be taken, now...” — May 8, 2012 State Attorneys General Letters to media company CEOs
Solutions • Evidence-based policies create marketdis-incentives. • Not censorship, extensions of current methods. • Blunt the tobacco industry’s persistent exploitation of film. Basic strategy: Increase the “cost” Jono Polansky | Onbeyond LLC | email@example.com | Full-text references at Smokefreemovies.ucsf.edu Tobacco content data: Thumbs Up! Thumbs Down!, a project of Breathe California of Sacramento-Emigrant Trails