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What is Biochemistry?. Biochemistry is the study of the chemical interactions of living things. Biochemists study the structures and physical properties of biological molecules. Often are involved in the manufacture of new drugs and medical treatments.

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what is biochemistry
What is Biochemistry?
  • Biochemistry is the study of the chemical interactions of living things.
  • Biochemists study the structures and physical properties of biological molecules.
    • Often are involved in the manufacture of new drugs and medical treatments
elements in living organisms
The most common elements found in living organisms include:

Carbon (C)

Oxygen (O)

Nitrogen (N)

Hydrogen (H)

Phosphorus (P)

Sulfur (S)

Elements in Living Organisms
biochemistry where chemistry and biology meet head on
Biochemistry: where chemistry and biology meet head-on
  • Living things require millions of chemical reactions within the body, just to survive.
  • Metabolism = all the chemical reactions occurring in the body.
  • Organic molecules:
    • usually associated with living things.
    • always contain CARBON.
    • are “large” molecules, with many atoms
    • always have covalent bonds (share electrons)
macromolecules of cells
Macromolecules of Cells
  • Macro = large
  • 4 types of macromolecules in cellular biology

1. Carbohydrates

2. Lipids

3. Proteins

4. Nucleic Acids

macromolecule 1 carbohydrates
Macromolecule #1: Carbohydrates
  • Sugars and groups of sugars
  • Purposes: energy and structure
  • Includes three types:
    • Monosaccharide (1 sugar – quick energy)
    • Disaccharide (2 sugars – short storage)
    • Polysaccharide (many sugars – energy long storage & form structures)
macromolecule 1 carbohydrates6
Macromolecule #1: Carbohydrates
  • Polysaccharide Examples:
    • Glycogen—glucose polymer stored for future energy needs. Found in liver, muscle and sperm, etc.
    • Cellulose—glucose polymer used to form fibers for plant structures. Humans can’t digest (fiber). Most abundant organic molecule.
    • Chitin—glucose polymer for exoskeletons of some crustaceans & insects.
macromolecule 2 lipids
Macromolecule #2: Lipids
  • Insoluble in water (think oil & water)

4 types:

    • 1-triglycerides (fats & oils)
      • (long-term energy storage, insulation)
    • 2-phospholipids (primary component of cell membrane)
    • 3-steroids (cell signaling)
      • cholesterol molecules modified to form sex hormones. (e.g. testosterone, estrogen, etc.)
    • 4-waxes (protection, prevents water loss)
      • Used mainly by plants, but also bees, some furry animals and humans.
macromolecule 3 proteins
Macromolecule #3: Proteins
  • Probably the most complicated of all biological molecules.
  • Serve the most varied purposes, including:
macromolecule 3 proteins15
Macromolecule #3: Proteins
  • The building blocks of proteins are AMINO ACIDS. There are only 20 types of Amino Acids.
  • There are millions of different proteins, and they are all built from different combinations of the 20 amino acids.
  • Amino acids join together to form peptides, polypeptides, and polypeptide chains.
slide19

Motion

actin & myosin fibers in muscles

macromolecule 4 nucleic acids
Macromolecule #4: Nucleic Acids
  • Nucleotides: building blocks of nucleic acids.
    • Each nucleotide contains
      • (a) phosphate molecule,
      • (b) nitrogenous base, and
      • (c) 5-carbon sugar
  • Several types of nucleic acids, including:
    • DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid
      • Genetic material, double stranded helix
    • RNA: ribonucleic acid
      • Genetic material, single stranded
    • ATP: adenosine triphosphate
      • High energy compound
slide23

THE BIG PICTURE

  • Chemistry is essential for life…