URINALYSIS (MLT 305) LECTURE ONE. Dr. Essam H. Jiffri. THE CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF URINE . REAGENT STRIPS
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- Reagent strips currently provide a simple, rapid means for performing 10 medically significant chemical analyses, including pH, protein, glucose, ketones, blood, bilirubin, urobilinogen, nitrite, specific gravity, and leukocytes.
- Testing methodology consists of dipping the strip briefly; into a well-mixed urine specimen; removing excess urine by touching the edge of the strip to the container as the strip is withdrawn; waiting the specified amount of time for the reaction to occur; and comparing the color of the strip with the color chart.
- The newest addition to automated urinalysis is the Yellow IRIS (International Remote Imaging), capable of performing specific gravity tests, routine chemical analysis, and a slideless microscopic analysis from an uncentrifuged specimen.
- Urine glucose may be reported in terms of trace, 1+, 2+, 3+ and 4+; however, the color charts also provide quantitative measurements ranging from 100 mg per dl to 2 g per dl, or 0.1 percent to 2 percent.
The three ketone compounds are not present in equal amounts in urine, both acetone and beta-hydroxybutyric acid are produced from acetoacetic acid, and the proportions of 78 % beta-hydroxybutyric acid, 20 % acetoacetic acid and 2% acetone are relatively constant in all specimen.
Reagent strip tests utilize the sodium nitroprusside (nitroferricyanide) reaction to measure ketones, in this reaction, acetoacetic acid in an alkaline medium will react with sodium nitroprusside to produce purple color.
- The test does not measure beta-hydroxybutyric acid and is only slightly sensitive to acetone.