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Understanding 12 Lead EKGs A Practical Approach Brenda M. Beasley, RN, BS, EMT-Paramedic Michael C. West, RN, MS, EMT- Paramedic CHAPTER 1 The Anatomy of the Heart { Structure } Anatomy of the Heart Objectives: Describe the chambers of the heart Atria Ventricles

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chapter 1 the anatomy of the heart structure

Understanding 12 Lead EKGsA Practical ApproachBrenda M. Beasley, RN, BS, EMT-Paramedic Michael C. West, RN, MS, EMT- Paramedic

CHAPTER 1

The Anatomy of the Heart

{ Structure }

anatomy of the heart
Anatomy of the Heart
  • Objectives:
    • Describe the chambers of the heart
      • Atria
      • Ventricles
    • Identify the location, shape, and size of the heart
    • Name the layers of the heart
    • Name the valves of the heart

BRADY : Understanding 12 leads Ch. 1

anatomy of the heart3
Anatomy of the Heart
  • Objectives [ continued ]
  • Describe the structure and function of the blood vessels
    • Arteries
    • Veins
    • Capillaries

BRADY : Understanding 12 leads Ch. 1

anatomy of the heart4
Anatomy of the Heart
  • The Heart is Muscle
  • Myocardium - heart muscle
  • “Two-sided pump”
  • Atrium [ atria ] Upper chambers
    • separated by interatrial septum
  • Ventricles - Lower Chambers
    • separated by interventricular septum

BRADY : Understanding 12 leads Ch. 1

location size and shape of the heart
Location, size, and shape of the Heart

BRADY : Understanding 12 leads Ch. 1

location size and shape of the heart6
Location, Size, and Shape of the Heart
  • Located in Mediastinum
    • Lying in front of spinal column, behind sternum, and between lungs
    • 2/3 lies to left of midline
    • Apex lies just above diaphragm
    • Base lies at level of the third rib
    • Size of owner’s closed fist

BRADY : Understanding 12 leads Ch. 1

layers of the heart
Layers of the Heart
  • Pericardium - closed, two layered sac
    • Parietal Pericardium - tough, nonelastic, fibrous connective tissue
    • Visceral Pericardium - thin, serous inner layer of pericardium

BRADY : Understanding 12 leads Ch. 1

the heart wall
The Heart Wall
  • Epicardium- smooth outer surface
  • Myocardium- thick, middle layer of the heart, composed of cardiac muscle cells , responsible for ability to contract
  • Endocardium -innermost layer, composed of connective tissue

BRADY : Understanding 12 leads Ch. 1

valves of the heart
Valves of the Heart
  • Four valves allow blood to flow in one direction
  • Two Sets
    • Atrioventricular Valves
    • Semilunar Valves

BRADY : Understanding 12 leads Ch. 1

atrioventricular valves
Atrioventricular Valves
  • Located between atria and the ventricles
  • Allow flow from atria into ventricles
  • Prevent flow backward from ventricles
  • Tricuspid Valve - three cusps - located between right atrium / right ventricle
  • Mitral / bicuspid Valve- has two cusps - located between left atrium / left ventricle

BRADY : Understanding 12 leads Ch. 1

semilunar valves
Semilunar Valves
  • Prevent backflow of blood into the Ventricles. Each valve contains threesemilunar, or moon-shaped, cusps.
  • Pulmonic Valve- located between right ventricle and pulmonary artery
  • Aortic Valve - located between left ventricle and trunk of aorta

BRADY : Understanding 12 leads Ch. 1

heart valves function
Heart Valves Function
  • Chamber pressure governs opening and closing of heart valves
  • Ventricular Systole [ contraction ofventricles ] atrioventricular valves close and semilunar valves open
  • Ventricular Diastole [ relaxation ofventricles ] atrioventricular valves are open and semilunar valves are closed

BRADY : Understanding 12 leads Ch. 1

blood vessels
Blood Vessels
  • Blood Vessels are the “container” for fluid or blood
  • Arteries
  • Veins
  • Capillaries

BRADY : Understanding 12 leads Ch. 1

arteries
ARTERIES
  • Thick wall and muscular
  • Function under high pressure
  • Carry blood AWAY FROM heart
  • Regulate blood pressure by changes in peripheral vascular resistance
  • Arteries - larger vessels
  • Arterioles - smaller vessels

BRADY : Understanding 12 leads Ch. 1

arterial wall layers
Arterial Wall Layers

BRADY : Understanding 12 leads Ch. 1

veins
VEINS
  • Vessels that carry blood back to the heart
  • Venules - smaller vessels
  • Operate under low pressure

BRADY : Understanding 12 leads Ch. 1

capillaries
CAPILLARIES
  • Tiny blood vessels whose walls are thinnest of all
  • Vast majority of gas exchange occurs
  • Circulation - movement through a course [ body ] that leads back to initial point [ heart ]

BRADY : Understanding 12 leads Ch. 1

12 lead ekg chapter 1
12 Lead EKG Chapter 1
  • ANY QUESTIONS?

BRADY : Understanding 12 leads Ch. 1