Genetic Engineering. The simple addition, deletion, or manipulation of a single trait in an organism to create a desired change. Genetic Engineering. Genetic Engineering. -major tool is recombinant DNA. -Recombinant- DNA joined to other unrelated foreign DNA. -also called gene splicing.
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The simple addition, deletion, or manipulation of a single trait in an organism to create a desired change.
-major tool is recombinant DNA.
-Recombinant- DNA joined to other unrelated foreign DNA.
-also called gene splicing.
-tiny segments of a gene are taken out and replaced.
Organisms altered by genetic engineering.
-genetic material changed by other than random natural breeding.
-gene transfer-moving a gene from one organism to another.
-these require skill and knowledge to be carried out properly
-GMO- genetically modified organism.
-GMO free food-product in which no transgenic materials were used in its manufacture, such as soybeans used in making oils.
-GEO-genetically enhanced organism
-genetic material can be shared across scientific kingdoms.
-bacteria engineered-produce human proteins
-potential is virtually endless.
-food processors affected by genetic engineering.
-shelf-life, storage, food-handling;extended and simplified.
-help resist spoilage.
-plants transformed-insect,disease, and herbicide resistant.-animals treated engineered hormones-produce more milk, leaner meat.
-affecting health care & medical industry.-alternating growth w/hormones- replacing organs are common.-materials maybe rejected by organism unless hormones are offered.
-Pharmacology-preparation, use, and affect of drugs-tied to health and medicine-potential production of drugs is great.
-hormone production-natural in endocrine system of mammalian body.
-bacteria engineered to produce hormone.-fermentation known as bioprocessing.
-more efficient use of scarce minerals-greater efficiency in mining.-major concern-waste management.-biodegrade a number of waste products-sewage and petroleum products.
-gene splicing, gene cloning, molecular cloning-process cutting a gene out of a DNA strand and inserting the gene into another DNA strand.
-type of enzyme in DNA strand.-produced nucleic acid strand breaks interior of nucleic acid strand.-restriction endonucleases-enzyme produced by bacteria that is used in recombinant DNA.-cuts open bacterial plasmid.-gene construct engineered to plasmid with ligasees. Plasmids back to bacterium.
-carrier for DNA during the recombinant DNA process.-plasmid-piece of free-floating DNA in the cytoplasm of bacteria.-double-stranded, circular molecules that replicate independently of the chromosome.
Promoter gene- A sequence of bases in a nucleic acid strand, that serves as a signal to start transcription.
Chromosomal DNA construct- The gene of interest.
Antibiotic resistant gene- Are used as a marker system for transformed cells.
Ligation- uniting attaching two DNA fragments.
Recipient cell- is the cell that is reviewing the ‘new’ DNA.
Donor cell- is the cell that provides the new DNA fragment for the recipient cell
Virto- done in glass
Competent cell- a cell that is capable of taking up DNA.
Electroporation- The use of an electric shock to momentarily open or disrupt cell walls.
Conjugation- the contact of bacteria that involves the exchange of DNA with a mating tube.
Transformed cell- cell with new DNA
Marker gene- a gene that identifies which organisms have been successfully transformed
Totipotent- means that an organism has the ability to grow from a single cell
-especially important with plants, also called regeneration.
Ballistic Gene Transfer- the use of tiny DNA-coated projectiles as carriers. It is important to transport DNA through the walls of intended recipient cells.
Projectiles are often known as micro projectiles
Ballaistic transformation is done by using a ‘gene gun’ the gene gun has been useful in creating agricultural crops.
Callus- a mass of undifferentiated plant cells.
By making a callus the number of transformed cells is increased
Due to early cell differentiation, genetic transformation in animals must occur in the early embryo stage following the union of sex cells
This is accomplished by using microinjection, to randomly inject DNA into the fertilized call
Microinjection- is the injection of materials directly into cells using a small glass pipette.
The process of creating transgenetic animals involves three major steps:
Transgenetic integration- is expressed by the animal of that desired trait.
By: Kay & Jessica