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TRAILS AS TRANSPORTATION Design & Construction. Michael J. Kubek, P.E. Ohio Department of Transportation, District 12 Production Administrator. Before Design. Secure funding source Determine logical termini Coordinate with oversight agency. Determine Logical Termini

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trails as transportation design construction

TRAILS AS TRANSPORTATIONDesign & Construction

Michael J. Kubek, P.E.

Ohio Department of Transportation, District 12

Production Administrator

before design
Before Design
  • Secure funding source
  • Determine logical termini
  • Coordinate with oversight agency
slide3
Determine Logical Termini

Best to develop a master plan

slide4
Determine Logical Termini

Best to develop a master plan

before design5
Before Design
  • Determine Logical Termini
    • Federal requirement
    • Best to develop a master plan
    • Common termini
      • Connection to an existing trail
      • Park facility
      • Designated bike route
slide6
Common termini

Designated bike route

slide7
Common termini

Designated bike route

slide8
Common termini

Designated bike route

before design9
Before Design
  • Remember: Rails to Trails are not always a slam dunk. Consider the following:
    • Typical section
    • Drainage issues
    • Environmental issues
    • Right of Way
    • Utilities
design references
Design References
  • AASHTO “Guidelines for the Development of Bicycle Facilities,” (1999 or latest edition)
design references13
Design References
  • FHWA Publication No. FHWA-EP-01-027, “Best Practices Design Guide Part 2, Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access,” (2001)
design references14
Design References
  • AASHTO “Guidelines for the Development of Bicycle Facilities,” (1999 or latest edition)
  • FHWA Publication No. FHWA-EP-01-027, “Best Practices Design Guide Part 2, Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access,” (2001)
  • OMUTCD “Ohio Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (2005 or latest edition, Chapter 9)
  • Additional References
    • ODOT Office of Local Projects web site
      • www.dot.state.oh.us/Services/Pages/Bike.aspx
    • ODOT District 12 LPA website, Phase II Design
      • www.dot.state.oh.us/districts/D12/Production/LPA/Pages/default.aspx
    • Local MPO (Metropolitan Planning Organization)
types of bicycle facilities
Types of Bicycle Facilities
  • Bike Lane
  • Shared Use Path (aka Bike Path)
    • A facility shared by recreational users (i.e. pedestrians, joggers, bicyclists, etc.) separated from roadway traffic.
  • The design standards used for the bicycle facility shall be determined by the use of the facility.
trails as transportation16

TRAILS AS TRANSPORTATION

Shared Use Path Design

typical section

Design Speed

Typical Section
  • 20mph
  • 30mph (advisable for profile grades > 4%)
  • Width
    • Path Width = 10’
    • Graded Shoulder = 2’
    • Bridge or Tunnel Width = 14’
  • Cross Slope
    • Path Slope = 2% pref., 3% max
      • No crown is preferred
    • Graded Shoulder = 12:1 pref., 6:1 max
typical section18
Typical Section
  • Pavement Composition
    • Design for expected emergency, law enforcement, & maintenance vehicles
    • ODOT commercial drive design is recommended
typical section19
Typical Section
  • Horizontal Clearance
    • Obstructions = 3’ desired, 2’ min.
    • Separation from Roadway = 5’
    • Steep Embankment (> 3:1) = 5’
  • Vertical Clearance
    • 10’ desired, 8’ min.
horizontal alignment
Horizontal Alignment
  • Max. Grade Break w/o horizontal curve
    • Not addressed directly in AASHTO
    • Use taper formula for obstructions on page 67 of the manual
horizontal alignment23
Horizontal Alignment
  • Minimum Radius of Curvature
    • AASHTO Table 1, page 38
      • 20mph = 100’
      • 30mph = 225’
horizontal alignment24
Horizontal Alignment
  • Minimum Lateral Clearance for Horizontal Curves
    • AASHTO Table 4, page 45
horizontal alignment25
Horizontal Alignment
  • The preceding criteria establishes the threshold for safety in design. Remember to include an aesthetically pleasing and enjoyable facility.
vertical alignment
Vertical Alignment
  • Max. Grade Break w/o a vertical curve
    • Not addressed directly in AASHTO
    • Use ODOT Location & Design Manual (L&D) Figure 203-2
      • 20mph = 2.9%
      • 30mph = 1.30%
  • Minimum length of vertical curve
    • Establish Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) for crest curve
vertical alignment27
Vertical Alignment
  • Minimum length of vertical curve
    • Based on Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) for crest curve
    • AASHTO manual states 3 feet
    • ODOT District 12 recommends
      • 3 * Design Speed (pref.)
      • 2 * Design Speed (min.)
vertical alignment28
Vertical Alignment
  • Maximum length of steep profile grades
    • AASHTO page 70
vertical alignment29
Vertical Alignment
  • Maximum length of steep profile grades
    • FHWA page 16-5
vertical alignment30
Vertical Alignment
  • Maximum length of steep profile grades

5% < Grade ≤ 6% up to 800ft

6% < Grade ≤ 7% up to 400ft

7% < Grade ≤ 8% up to 300ft

8% < Grade ≤ 8.33% up to 200ft *

8.33% < Grade ≤ 10% up to 30ft *

10% < Grade ≤ 12.5% up to 10ft *

vertical alignment31
Vertical Alignment
  • Maximum length of steep profile grades
    • Exception: when the path is adjacent to a roadway, it can follow the roadway profile.
ada compliance
ADA Compliance
  • ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act)
  • Curb Ramps
    • Provide truncated domes
ada compliance35
ADA Compliance
  • Accessibility
    • The trail (shared use path) is considered a “Facility.”
    • Access to the facility is subject to the ADAAG (Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines)
drainage
Drainage
  • Use Bicycle safe grates (4” max. grid spacing)
  • Provide ditch on uphill side of the path
  • Culvert design per ODOT Location & Design Manual Volume 2, Section 1004.2
  • Ditch flow depth per L&D section 1102.4 (District 12)
    • 9” below edge of path, pref.
    • 0” below edge of path, min.
  • Do not put the safety of the users at risk!
vehicular crossings
Vehicular Crossings
  • Pave drives for at least 10’ on each side of the path
vehicular crossings39
Vehicular Crossings
  • Signing and striping per AASHTO manual and the OMUTCD (Chapter 9 for bicycles)
vehicular crossings40
Vehicular Crossings
  • Signing and striping per AASHTO manual and the OMUTCD (Chapter 9 for bicycles)
vehicular crossings41
Vehicular Crossings
  • Slow down users with geometrics & provide SSD at intersection
vehicular crossings42
Vehicular Crossings
  • Slow down users with geometrics & provide SSD at intersection
design exceptions
Design Exceptions
  • Prepare in accordance with ODOT L&D, Volume 1, section 105
  • Submit with letter of concurrence from the Local Public Agency (owner & maintaining agency)
  • Design standards that are “advisable” or “recommended” generally do not require a design exception
other design considerations
Other Design Considerations
  • Account for clean up in the bid, especially on urban trails
  • Design bridges for emergency and maintenance vehicle loading
  • Construction
    • Construction equipment loading
      • Soils investigation
    • Staging areas
  • Utilities in Railroad Corridors
    • Petroleum lines
    • Fiber Optic
design summary
Design Summary
  • Planning
    • Secure Funding
    • Master Plan
    • Logical Termini
  • Design
    • Use Common Sense
    • Always keep the safety of the user as your number one priority
    • Design as if your family will be using the facility