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The Mindful Supervisor: Cognitive Principles in Staff Supervision. A Production of the Great Western Regional Field Coordinators – 2005-2007 Dr. John Eggers – Correctional Program Specialist, NIC. The Mindful Supervisor: Cognitive Principles in Staff Supervision.

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the mindful supervisor cognitive principles in staff supervision

The Mindful Supervisor:Cognitive Principles in Staff Supervision

A Production of the Great Western Regional Field Coordinators – 2005-2007

Dr. John Eggers – Correctional Program Specialist, NIC

the mindful supervisor cognitive principles in staff supervision2
The Mindful Supervisor:Cognitive Principles in Staff Supervision

Great Western Regional Field Coordinators:

  • Dave Dusschee – Oregon
  • Tim Foss – Washington
  • Carrie Hodap – Arizona
  • Karen Holland – Wyoming
  • Steven King – Utah
  • Amy Le – California
  • Gregory Morton – Oregon
  • Aaron Shepard – Idaho
  • Toni Spencer – California
  • Wayne Ternes – Montana
slide3

The Mindful Supervisor:Cognitive Principles in Staff Supervision

With course design assistance provided by:

  • Gary Lasater, Oregon Youth Authority
  • Patrick Samples, Oregon Department of Corrections
  • John Tyler, Oregon Department of Corrections
slide4
MINDFULNESS –

A technique in which a person becomes purposefully aware of his/her thoughts, feelings and decisions in the present moment, non-judgmentally.

It serves as a pre-requisite to developing insight and wisdom.

mindfulness
MINDFULNESS –
  • Overlapping concepts:
    • Emotional Intelligence
    • Self Awareness
    • Authentic Leadership
    • Metacognition
leadership and self awareness
LEADERSHIP AND SELF AWARENESS
  • “21st century leadership calls for a new type of leader who understands him/herself well and can call others into a higher state of being, rather than the old style leader who simply knows how to manage [business] processes.”
    • Connelly and Diaz; Executive Awareness, 2007
leadership and self awareness7
LEADERSHIP AND SELF AWARENESS
  • “A fundamental starting point for leadership development is self awareness . . . Self-knowledge continues to serve our growth and development throughout life . . . who you are and what you believe is possible.”
    • Avolio and Luthans; The High Impact Leader, 2006
slide8
“Releasing ourselves from the need to keep half of ourselves hidden…, to entertain the possibility that there is an integral wholeness to all the seemingly antagonistic and opposing sides of ourselves, a possibility that we may not have to be ‘fixed’ or amended before we can serve ourselves or the company.”
  • David Whyte; The Heart Aroused, 1996
slide9
“The unexamined life

is not worth living.”

Socrates, 399 BC

slide10
“The unexamined life

is not worth living.”

Socrates, 399 BC

course outline
Course Outline:
  • Qualities and Skill Building for Supervisors

Personal Position Statement; Cognitive/Behavioral Model

2. Values Dissonance: Personal Vision & Organizational Context

3. Effective Communication

4. Making Decisions and Creating Solutions

5. Valuing Differences

6. Encouraging Performance

7. Team Building

8. Supervisory Development Plan

slide13

Performance Objectives:

  • Discuss at least one professional mentor and model in your life.
  • Explain the concept of automatic thoughts and feelings.
  • Examine the three internal dimensions of the Cognitive/Behavioral model.
  • Review the two external dimensions of the Cognitive/Behavioral model.
  • Utilize the Supervisory Self-Awareness (SSA) Model
slide14

Questions

  • What is an effective supervisor?
  • What does being a supervisor mean to you?
  • What are the skill sets needed by a supervisor?
  • What emotions contribute to effectiveness?
slide15
Mentors and Models
  • Individually write the names of several people who you have learned from.
  • List the memorable and effective characteristics and attributes that you adapted from each one.
slide16

Mentors and Models

Now list the negative attributes and characteristics that each had.

  • Which would you keep?
  • Which would you drop?
  • Which would you add?
1 qualities and skill building for supervisors
1. QUALITIES AND SKILL BUILDING FOR SUPERVISORS
  • What’s missing in the picture of this tree?
slide20

* Skill

* Stated Knowledge

BEHAVIOR

THOUGHTS

FEELINGS

* More likely aware

COGNITIVE STRUCTURE (thinking patterns)

BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES

* Under the surface

Source: Mark Carey, The Carey Group

personal position statement
Personal Position Statement
  • “What’s your frequency?”
slide23
Cognitive/Behavioral Model

Consequences

Situation

Behavior

Thoughts

Feelings

slide24

Cognitive/Behavioral Model

Two External Dimensions

  • Situations, Consequences

Three Internal Dimensions

  • Thoughts, Feelings, Behavior
slide25
Risky thoughts and feelings contribute to either ineffective relationship or productivity outcomes.

Pro-social thoughts and feelings contribute to effective relationship or productivity outcomes.

slide26
Cognitive/Behavioral Model

Consequences

Situation

Behavior

Thoughts

Feelings

slide27
Cognitive/Behavioral Model

Consequences

Situation

Behavior

Thoughts

Feelings

slide29
Identify several situations
  • List your real, automatic thoughts, feelings and actions
  • Stop there
slide30

Qualities and Skill Building for Supervisors

Review:

  • Mentors and Roots
  • Personal Position Statement
  • Cognitive Behavioral Model
  • Supervisory Self Awareness Notes
slide32

Performance Objectives:

  • Utilize the Supervisory Self-Awareness (SSA) Model to analyze congruence between your Personal Position Statement and your agency Mission
  • Utilize the SSA Model to analyze discrepancies between your Personal Position Statement and an agency policy or practice
slide34

Individual Activity - Mission Statement

  • Identify your agency’s mission statement. Don’t interpret it according to your own preferences.
  • Retrieve your personal position statement.
  • Using an SSA worksheet, compare the two.
  • Is there any dissonance ?
slide35

Individual Activity -Personal Values vs. Agency Values Conflict

  • Choose a situation where you are in conflict with the expectations of your agency
  • Fill out Automatic Thoughts and Feelings, Preferred Outcomes and Mindful Thoughts and Feelings
  • Don’t fill out the Action section
slide36

Personal Values vs. Agency Values Conflict

  • Did you have automatic thoughts or feelings? Were they risky?
  • How did you express those automatic thoughts or feelings?
  • What were your behaviors?
  • What were the positive and negative consequences of those behaviors?
slide37

Personal Vision and Organizational Context

  • Do your personal beliefs impact your organizational expectations?
  • Do your personal beliefs impact your expectations as a supervisor?
slide38

The Mindful Supervisor

360˚ Supervisor Skills Assessment Instrument

slide39
360 DEGREE FEEDBACK,

aka Using Your Mirrors

“There is a way to do it better . . . find it.”

  • Thomas A. Edison, describing his research strategy
slide40

Three Reasons We Reject Feedback Given By Others

  • Unwillingness to Challenge Self-perceptions
  • Fear of Exposing Weaknesses
  • Fear of Unbalanced Feedback
        • Lepsinger, Lucia; The Art and Science of 360 Feedback

360 DEGREE FEEDBACK

slide41
360 DEGREE FEEDBACK
  • Unwillingness to Challenge Self-perceptions
    • Comfort zones are comfortable
    • Why mess with a good thing?
    • A strong belief in oneself and one’s ability are important factors in management confidence
slide42
360 DEGREE FEEDBACK
  • Fear of Exposing Weaknesses
    • And a voluntary 360 is like asking for our weaknesses to be exposed – publicly
    • Can set up defensiveness and denial
    • Are you calling me fat?
slide43
360 DEGREE FEEDBACK
  • Fear of Unbalanced Feedback
    • People will only see the negatives
    • The good things I do will be overlooked and ignored
    • Nobody’s perfect, but I’m not a total idiot
slide44
MINDFULNESS –

A technique in which a person becomes purposefully aware of his/her thoughts, feelings and decisions in the present moment, non-judgmentally.

It serves as a pre-requisite to developing insight and wisdom.

effective communication

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

Change your thinking and you change your world.

slide47

Performance Objectives:

  • Discuss the value of Stephen Covey’s Habit #5.
  • Identify the three components of verbal communication and the percentage of information found in each.
  • Explain the relationship of Self Talk to the Communications model and to the Cognitive/Behavioral Model.
slide48

Performance Objectives:

  • Describe the Arc of Distortion.
  • Utilize the Left-Hand Column Model to analyze thoughts and feelings.
slide49

Habit #5

“Seek first to understand and then to be understood.”

  • Stephen R. Covey,
  • The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, 1990.
communication assessment
Communication Assessment

Courageous Communication. Win-win; we constantly learn from and grow with each other.

Problems occur; we work to fix them. Repeat as necessary. Pretty much on the same page.

Agree to Disagree, then step away. I’d do more if you would.

Adversarial; I win, you lose. It’s mostly your fault. Contentious.

Sabotage Communication. Enemies, enemies; everywhere you look.

communication assessment51
Communication Assessment

Courageous Communication. Win-win; we constantly learn from and grow with each other.

Problems occur; we work to fix them. Repeat as necessary. Pretty much on the same page.

Agree to Disagree, then step away. I’d do more if you would.

Adversarial; I win, you lose. It’s mostly your fault. Contentious.

Sabotage Communication. Enemies, enemies; everywhere you look.

Self

Work

communication and trust
Communication and Trust

Empathy/Caring

Competence/ Expertise

Commitment/ Dedication

Honesty/Openness

3 components of communication
3 Components of Communication

Language 7%

Body Language 55%

Paralanguage 38%

the communication iceberg
The Communication Iceberg

10%

Communication skill level

90%

Attitude, motivational level

slide55

Win-Win

Learning

“Seek first to understand and then to be understood.”

Stephen R. Covey

Behaviors of Courageous Communication in Supervision

Understanding

Empowering

slide56

The Communication Model

>>>

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FILTERS

FILTERS

The Receiver

The Sender

Feedback

The Message

slide57

The Responsibilities of theReceiver

>>>

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The Message

FILTERS

FILTERS

The Sender

The Receiver

slide59

Receiver Filters

What we are thinking and feeling,

while the other person is speaking.

Our Self Talk

slide60

Receiver Filters

Self Talk

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The Message

FILTERS

FILTERS

The Sender

The Receiver

slide61

YES

What you actually heard

MAYBE

Arc of “Distortion

Arc of Distortion

I know you believe you understand what you think I said, but I am not sure you realize that what you heard is not what I meant. Unknown

advocacy and inquiry
Advocacy and Inquiry

Advocacy: n. an advocating: a speaking or writing in support (of something)

Inquiryn. 1. The act of inquiring. 2. An investigation or examination. 3. A question; query.

slide64

4 Steps of Inquiry

1. Temporarily suspend your internal filters

2. Listen

3. Ask questions about what you hear

4. Ask more questions about the answers you receive

fight or flight
Fight

Expression of anger

Subtle sarcasm

Sharp answers

Clever comebacks

Belittling humor

Judgments

Flight

Withdrawal

Feeling sorry for oneself

Sulking

Growing cold

Being indifferent

Escaping involvement

Escaping responsibilities

Fight or Flight?
slide67
Cognitive/Behavioral Model

Consequences

Situation

Behavior

Thoughts

Feelings

slide69

Receiver Skill Sets

  • Check your filters
  • Check your Self Talk
  • Work on reducing your Arc of Distortion
  • Practice the 4 Steps of Inquiry
slide70

Responsibility of the Sender

>>>

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The Message

FILTERS

FILTERS

The Receiver

The Sender

slide71

>>>

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Sender Filters

  • Left-hand Column
  • Right-hand Column

What I’m thinking

What is said

slide72

Left-hand Column Exercise

Left-hand Column

Right-hand Column

  • Jon: I heard you bought a new car.
  • You: Yes, I got a new red sports car.
  • Jon: Really, what kind?
  • You: A Jaguar.
  • Jon: A brand new one
  • You: You betcha.
slide73

Left-hand Column Exercise

Left-hand Column

  • Jon: How can you afford a new car?
  • You: Woo hoo! Look at me now
  • Jon: Probably a Ford
  • You: A Convertible
  • Jon: It’s probably a 1970.
  • You: Eat your heart out

Right-hand Column

  • Jon: I heard you bought a new car.
  • You: Yes, I got a new red sports car.
  • Jon: Really, what kind?
  • You: A Jaguar.
  • Jon: A brand new one
  • You: You betcha.
slide74

Left-hand Column Exercise

Left-hand Column

Right-hand Column

  • Q: How long have you been working as a supervisor?
  • A: About a year.
  • Q: Have you had any major concerns with staff?
  • A: Yea, a couple of times.
  • Q: So did you talk to anyone about your concerns?
  • A: No, I didn’t want my peers to think I was weak.
slide75

Sender Filters

>>>

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  • Left-hand Column
  • Right-hand Column

What I’m thinking

What is said

slide76

Reflection: Using Your Left-hand Column as a Resource

  • What was I trying to accomplish?
  • Did I achieve the results I wanted?
  • How might have my comments contributed to the difficulties?
  • Why didn’t I say what was in my left hand column?
  • What assumptions did I make about the other person or people?
  • How can I use my left-hand column as a resource to improve communications?
slide77

The Message

>>>

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FILTERS

FILTERS

The Receiver

The Sender

slide78

Communication Stoppers

  • “This is the way it is…”
  • “You’re wrong…”
  • “What’s your proof…”
  • “Whatever”
  • “You…”
  • We vs. They or Us vs. Them
  • GOSSIP
slide79

To look outward is to blame;

to look inward is to own.

slide80
“When the relationship is not well established, a chapter of words won’t be sufficient to communicate meaning because meanings are not found in words – they are found in people.”
  • Covey, Stephen R., The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, Simon & Schuster, New York, NY, 1990.
how to get your point across
How to get your point across
  • State your main point immediately
  • Use language easily understood
  • Write to the needs of the listener
  • Spell correctly
  • Have a friend or co-worker review it
  • Don’t assume with e-mail
slide82

The Filters

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FILTERS

FILTERS

The Receiver

The Sender

story of the pioneer
Story of the Pioneer

During the days of wagon trains moving west, a rest station formed overnight in Northern Minnesota. Most wagon trains passed through this station. One old gentlemen always greeted each group of pioneers. One day, a family of pioneers asked the old man what the people were like out west. The old man says, “What were the people like where you came from?” The pioneer says, “Oh, they were great people. In fact, our neighbors all got together and bought us this buckboard. We are really going to miss them.” “Well,” says the old man, “you are in luck. That is exactly how the people are out west were you are going.”

A month or so later, another pioneer family passed through the rest station. They approached the old man and asked him what the people were like out west. The old man says, “What were the people like where you came from?” The pioneer says, “They were mean and despicable and always trying to cheat us. That is why we left the East to go out west.” “Well,” says the old man, “ (fill in the blank) “

slide85

Performance Objectives:

  • Apply the Cognitive/Behavioral Model to past outcomes.
  • Develop an alternative list of Thoughts and Feelings related to a past outcome.
  • Coach others in the use of the Cognitive/Behavioral Model related to past outcomes.
slide87

Supervisory Self Awareness

Notes

  • State the situation objectively
  • Identify your thoughts and feelings
  • Identify any risky thoughts/feelings
  • What behavior did you choose?
  • What were the consequences?
slide88

Supervisory Self Awareness

Notes

  • Brainstorm a list of new thoughts and feelings to replace your risky thoughts and feelings
  • Decide what new thoughts and feelings will bring you closer to the outcome you desire
  • Decide the action you will take following those new thoughts and feelings
slide90

Performance Objectives:

  • Identify professional strengths in four color types.
  • Develop and present non-labeling “Differences” presentation.
  • Apply the color types to a job-specific event.
  • Relate the color types to agency diversity practices.
slide91

True Colors

Blue

Gold

Green

Orange

3 valuing differences
3. VALUING DIFFERENCES
  • BLUE
  • Sympathetic, personal
  • Relationship oriented, cherish harmony
  • Process rather than content
  • Can project uncertainty
  • Adept at interacting with and supporting others
  • “I personally don’t care whether it needs to be fixed or not as long as we all agree. The agreement’s the thing.”
3 valuing differences93
3. VALUING DIFFERENCES
  • GOLD
  • Prefers practical, realistic plans
  • Measurable goals; rational
  • Blueprint with time lines, e.g. PERT chart
  • Follow-through
  • May be rigid and formulaic
  • Honors traditional methods
  • “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.”
3 valuing differences94
3. VALUING DIFFERENCES
  • GREEN
  • Abstract, analytical, inventive
  • Create new systems and improve designs
  • My head rules my heart, logically
  • Appreciate work that is mentally stimulating
  • May question authority, be impatient with routine
  • Long-range focus
  • “It needs to be fixed on some level. Look harder.”
3 valuing differences95
3. VALUING DIFFERENCES
  • ORANGE
  • Experimentation, pilot projects
  • Change is an on-going process
  • Timing is everything
  • Short-range focus
  • Desire immediate results/instant gratification
  • “We haven’t changed things for a while, so why not today?!”
slide96
True Colors Activity
  • What are the strengths of your color?
  • What attributes does your group possess that each of the other groups should possess? Explain why.
  • BE PERSUASIVE AND DIRECT.
slide97
True Colors Activity
  • Develop and present a brief lesson to the large group, dealing with “True Colors” in a non-pejorative fashion.
review
Review
  • What have you learned or taught yourselves from this exercise?
performance objectives
Performance Objectives:
  • Explain the concept of reinforcement as a relative relationship
  • Discuss the value of a 4:1, positive : negative reinforcement ratio
  • Describe the steps for using negative consequences
  • Examine the value of modeling in the effective use of authority
reinfor cement
Reinforcement
  • Exists in the relationship between things
  • Incentives and rewards should always be individualized
reinfor cement102
Reinforcement
  • Positive Reinforcement is the introduction of something desired to increase a behavior
  • Negative Reinforcement is the removal or reduction of something undesirable to increase a behavior
4 1 watch your ratio
4:1 – WATCH YOUR RATIO!
  • 4 – INCENTIVES AND POSTIVE REINFORCERS

matched with

  • 1 – LIMITS AND NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES
slide104
ENCOURAGING PERFORMANCE

FOR MOST PEOPLE . . .

Attention is like sunshine to us

What we give our attention to, grows

What we ignore, withers

slide105
ENCOURAGING PERFORMANCE

We Learn By:

  • What We See and Hear (Observe)
  • What We Practice (Model)
  • What Is Reinforced
slide106
ENCOURAGING PERFORMANCE

Therefore, make sure:

  • Staff SEE desired behavior;
  • Staff HEAR desired behavior;
  • Staff PRACTICE desired behavior; and
  • Staff ARE REINFORCED when desired behavior is demonstrated.
slide107
ENCOURAGING PERFORMANCE

Key Components of Positive Reinforcement:

  • Noticing
  • Sincerely praise progress (any progress)
  • The more frequently and sincerely you pay attention to a behavior, the more it will be repeated
limits and negative consequences
Limits and Negative Consequences
  • Apply immediately to extinguish unwanted behavior
  • Follow through
  • Apply at the level of the behavior
  • Apply consistently
  • Use a variety of negative limits and consequences
limits and negative consequences109
Limits and Negative Consequences
  • Use short-sweet consequences, never spread out or use harsh and extensive consequences
  • Apply these unemotionally or with neutral affect
  • Stop showing disapproval once the current behavior is extinguished.
effective use of authority
Effective Use of Authority
  • Clarify expectations
  • Set standards
  • Provide respectful feedback
  • Model desired behaviors
slide111

Avoid The Boss Traps

1. Arguing for change

2. Assuming the expert role

3. Criticizing, shaming or blaming

4. Labeling

5. Being in a hurry

6. Claiming preeminence

not listening roadblocks thomas gordon
Not Listening: Roadblocks(Thomas Gordon)
  • Ordering, directing, commanding
  • Warning, cautioning, threatening
  • Giving advice, providing suggestions and solutions
  • Persuading with logic, arguing, lecturing
  • Moralizing
  • Disagreeing, judging, criticizing, blaming
  • Shaming, ridiculing, labeling
  • Interpreting, analyzing
  • Reassuring, sympathizing, consoling
  • Questioning, probing, interrogating
  • Withdrawing, distracting, humoring, changing the subject
encouraging performance113
Encouraging Performance

Instead:

  • Roll with resistance. Defending breeds defensiveness. Resistance is a signal to respond differently.
  • Avoid arguing for change. Labeling is unnecessary.
  • Use momentum to positive advantage.
  • Invite new perspectives rather than impose them.
encouraging performance114
Encouraging Performance

And:

  • Recognize “Change Talk”; Support it.
  • Notice it; Reflect it; Don’t ignore it.
  • Ask for examples/elaboration. The employee is the primary source for new answers and solutions.
  • Affirm change talk (reinforce, encourage, support).
  • Summarize; paraphrase.
reminder
Reminder!

People change because

they think they have

a problem, not because

you think they have

a problem.

summary
Summary
  • Reinforcement can be both positive and negative
  • Incentives and rewards should always be individualized
  • Remember the 4:1 ratio
  • Model desired behaviors
slide118

Performance Objectives:

  • Accomplish guided team activities
  • Utilize previous training material during team building activities in order to increase team effectiveness
  • Coach class members regarding relevant skill sets demonstrated during team building activities
slide119

Exercise Choices:

  • Snow Survival
  • Control Tower
  • Blind Shapes
  • Hollow Square
slide120

Observers

How was the team practicing effective communication skills?

Did the team use cognitive behavioral techniques?

What decision making and creating solution skills did you observe being used?

supervisory development plan123
SUPERVISORY DEVELOPMENT PLAN
  • The Supervisory Development Plan is the bridge between this course and your return to the work site. It puts everything into the context of the bigger picture.
supervisory development plan124
SUPERVISORY DEVELOPMENT PLAN

To begin your Supervisory Development Plan, use these lists to decide which areas are strengths and challenges for you.

With each of these areas fill out a Supervisory Self Awareness Worksheet.

supervisory development plan125
SUPERVISORY DEVELOPMENT PLAN

In the Situation column of the worksheet, list the situations you see you most need improvement in.

List your thoughts and feelings, both automatic and mindful, and then the preferred outcomes.

What action do you plan to take to increase your effectiveness in each area?

supervisory development plan126
SUPERVISORY DEVELOPMENT PLAN
  • If you have Supervisory Self Awareness worksheets unfinished
  • Fill out the bottom half of the “Action” part of the form—what will your actions be now?
thank you all for your time energy thoughts and feelings

Thank you all for your time, energy, thoughts and feelings.

A Production of the Great Western Regional Field Coordinators – 2005-2007

Dr. John Eggers – Correctional Program Specialist, NIC