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  1. USING SUPERVISION A Presentation by Bruce D. Hartsell, LCSW Lecturer California State University, Bakersfield

  2. Why study supervision? • a. To become better supervisees. • b. To facilitate better service. • c. To produce better client outcomes. • d. To reduce risk.

  3. Purposes of Supervision • a. Protect the public • b. Develop professionals • c. Support professionals • d. Manage the work • e. Promote accountability

  4. Functions of supervision (Kadushin) • a. administration • b. education • c. supportive leadership

  5. Definition of Supervision • ? • ? • ?

  6. Policy Bases of Supervision • a. Ethical • b. Legal • c. Professional • d. Institutional

  7. Ethical Requirements – NASW • a. 1.04 Competence . . . within the boundaries of . . . supervised experience . . . b. 3.07 Administration . . . resources . . . to provide appropriate staff supervision .

  8. Ethical Requirements - Kohlberg • Stage 4 – societal norms • Stage 5 – universal principles • Stage 6 – claims of all individuals • Not Stage 1 – what one can get away with

  9. Legal Requirements a. Business and Professions Code, Chapter 14, Article 4 - “. . . supervised course of study . . .” - “responsibility for, and control of” b. CCR Title 16, Division 18 Unprofessional conduct - - aid or abet unlicensed practice - permits one under “supervision or control”

  10. Professional Requirements • a. Based in ethics • b. Based in history

  11. Institutional Requirements • a. Based in ethics • b. Based in professional norms • c. Based in law • - work must be supervised by MSW • - must meet at least 1.5 hours per week • FOR SUPERVISION

  12. Recommendations • Decide on your own purposes for supervision. • Decide what ethical principles will guide your supervision. • Evaluate the fit between your purposes and your ethics.

  13. What distinguishes supervision, consultation, and collaboration? • a. Supervision includes responsibility for the quality of the work and authority over the work. • b. Supervision involves a fiduciary duty to the supervisee and to the client.

  14. Distinctions - • c. Supervision requires monitoring and evaluation of the work. • d. Consultation does not involve authority although it implies expertise and therefore responsibility. • e. Collaboration involves parallel work without authority or responsibility for the work of the other.

  15. Contexts of Supervision (Kadushin) • a. community • b. profession • c. organization • d. department • e. supervisor-supervisee

  16. Significance (Kadushin) • a. The work of an organization must be organized. • b. Financial accountability to the community must be maintained. • c. Policy accountability to the community must be maintained.

  17. Significance -- • d. Management needs information from staff. • e. Because what we do is not directly observable, supervision allows oversight. • f. The results of what we do are often not easily evident.

  18. Significance -- • g. The agency provides the clients, and the clients have little choice. • h. Supervision is part of professional socialization. • i. Professional activity is not controlled by professional organizations.

  19. Significance -- • j. Supervision shares responsibility for decisions. • k. The demands of the job require supportive supervision. • l. Social worker personalities and values do not strongly oppose supervision.

  20. Three Types of Supervision • Administrative • Educational • Supportive

  21. Tasks of Administrative Supervision • recruiting and selecting staff • inducting and placing the worker • planning work • delegating work • monitoring, reviewing, and evaluating work

  22. Administrative Tasks - • coordinating work • sharing information upwards, downwards, and laterally • advocating change • buffering change

  23. Six Functions of Leadership(Adair) • planning • initiating • controlling • supporting • informing • evaluating

  24. Management Tasks(Drucker) • set objectives • organize • motivate and communicate • measure • develop people

  25. Educational Supervision • Facilitates learning • Knowledge • Skills • Values • Applies learning theory • Connects new to known • Connects theory to practice

  26. Supportive Supervision • Instrumental issues – • information • skills • structures • facilities

  27. Supportive Supervision -- • Personal issues – emotional support • recognition • reassurance • encouragement • approval • commendation • catharsis • desensitization

  28. Focuses of Supervision - I • People • Problem • Place • Process • Personnel

  29. Focuses of Supervision - II • theory • content • interpersonal process • intrapersonal process

  30. Focuses of Supervision - III • Philosophy • Theory • Technique

  31. Roles and Models • Supervisor as manager, teacher, counselor • Developmental models • Discrimination model • Integrated (eclectic) model • Interactional model • Theory-specific models • Reflection

  32. Developmental Model • 1. relationship building, goal setting, and contracting the conditions of supervision • 2. fluctuation between roles as counselor and teacher as skill deficits and stresses arise • 3. collegial role in response to growing expertise and confidence • 4. consultant role as the supervisee becomes self-directed and independent

  33. Another Developmental Model (Loganbill) • stagnation • confusion • integration

  34. Some dimensions of development • need for structure • need for direct feedback • need for didactic instruction • need for supervisor support

  35. Discrimination Model(Bernard & Goodyear) • three foci – • process skills • conceptualization skills • personalization skills • three supervisor roles – • teacher • counselor • consultant

  36. Integrated (Eclectic) Model • Variously conceived in the literature • Intensional inclusion of more than one psychological theory • May include one orientation to supervision and another to treatment

  37. Interactional Model (Shulman) • Preliminary Phase – Tuning In • Beginning Phase • Contracting • Clarifying Purposes • Specifying Roles • Establishing Authority

  38. Interactional -- • Middle Phase – Work Phase • Session tuning in • Session Contracting • Elaboration • Empathy • Sharing Feelings

  39. Interactional -- • Middle Phase – Continued • Showing Vulnerability • Demanding Work • Pointing Out Obstacles • Sharing Data • Session Ending • Ending and Transition Phase

  40. Theory-specific Models • psychodynamic • behavioral • cognitive • technical eclecticism

  41. Reflection • guided questioning • assumes that increased awareness leads to increased skill

  42. Recommendations • Choose models • Discuss models with your supervisor • Agree on one or more models • Use the agreed-on models • Evaluate use of the models

  43. Steps in the Supervision Process • determine what the supervisee needs to learn • determine how the supervisee learns • determine which case will best facilitate that learning • prepare to apply the learning

  44. Supervision Steps -- • apply the learning • review the experience • provide feedback • reevaluate learning needs • repeat the process

  45. Characteristics of a Good Supervision Meeting • involves preparation and planning by both parties • has a shared objective • focuses on the work of the supervisee • gives priority to the critical self-analysis of the supervisee

  46. Meeting Characteristics -- • provides helpful feedback • occurs in the context of a facilitative learning process • is consistent with good teaching-learning theory and practice • provides follow through and connection to the next meeting

  47. Recommendation Develop an agenda for a typical supervision meeting.

  48. Content of a Supervision Session • Follow up on previous assignments • Identification of learning needs • Review of cases • Interventions within supervision session • Recommendations for action outside of supervision

  49. Diversity Issues • Diversity influences . . . • a. the experience of problems • b. the description of problems • c. approaches to solving problems • d. perception of helpers