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October 20th, 2010

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    1. October 20th, 2010

    2. Brought to you by: The School of Resource and Environmental Management (REM) Ben Cross (Physical Geographer) Aimee Brisebois (Toxicologist) Bastian Zeiger (Environmental Scientist) Marena Brinkhurst (Social Scientist) Jacob Fox (Energy Economist) REM has many different perspectives School of Resource and Environmental Management focuses on the institutional, social, economic and public policy aspects of planning and management of natural resources. The emphasis is not simply to identify and describe problems, but to understand causes and design acceptable solutions. REM is an interdisciplinary program, with students and faculty coming from many different disciplines. REM has many different perspectives School of Resource and Environmental Management focuses on the institutional, social, economic and public policy aspects of planning and management of natural resources. The emphasis is not simply to identify and describe problems, but to understand causes and design acceptable solutions. REM is an interdisciplinary program, with students and faculty coming from many different disciplines.

    3. Overview for Today Talk about each one Population: Paul Erlichs Population Bomb, Popn explosion, carrying capacity, ignores human impacts population stabilizing Due we want to reach human carrying capacity, it that a high quality of life Food is Cheaper: Price of grain has been dropping, therefore we must have more of it, higher productivity At what cost, GMOs, chemical dependency Scarcity not a problem we can always find a replacement, get it from landfills CC can be solved- rainforest sequestration ecosystem impacts gamble on technology Life expectancy Leave earth really? immortalityTalk about each one Population: Paul Erlichs Population Bomb, Popn explosion, carrying capacity, ignores human impacts population stabilizing Due we want to reach human carrying capacity, it that a high quality of life Food is Cheaper: Price of grain has been dropping, therefore we must have more of it, higher productivity At what cost, GMOs, chemical dependency Scarcity not a problem we can always find a replacement, get it from landfills CC can be solved- rainforest sequestration ecosystem impacts gamble on technology Life expectancy Leave earth really? immortality

    4. Techno-Optimists Julian Simon is the poster boy for Techno-optimists, he used simple equations to show that we have nothing to worry about. Is this an appropriate approach for environmental problems? The complexity involved in environmental problems far surpasses that of his equations High degree of risk This is a key idea because of the large consequences and high probability of failure due to feedbacks, connections, thresholds, complexityJulian Simon is the poster boy for Techno-optimists, he used simple equations to show that we have nothing to worry about. Is this an appropriate approach for environmental problems? The complexity involved in environmental problems far surpasses that of his equations High degree of risk This is a key idea because of the large consequences and high probability of failure due to feedbacks, connections, thresholds, complexity

    5. Dr Jones said the world has no problems that cant be solved using new technology Here are some examples of how we are taking gambles with the planet every day with technology causing more problems. Mitigation vs. adaptation how do we want to deal with issues? How can we make sure that we learn from our mistakes.Dr Jones said the world has no problems that cant be solved using new technology Here are some examples of how we are taking gambles with the planet every day with technology causing more problems. Mitigation vs. adaptation how do we want to deal with issues? How can we make sure that we learn from our mistakes.

    6. What We Stand to Lose -We taking risks that threaten planetary systems -This is the one planet we know to be able to support life. We have not found others, and even if we do, the cost and travel time required to actually colonize them make this option essentially impossible, at least for the vast majority of humanity -We taking risks that threaten planetary systems -This is the one planet we know to be able to support life. We have not found others, and even if we do, the cost and travel time required to actually colonize them make this option essentially impossible, at least for the vast majority of humanity

    7. Economy-Environment Interactions -everything we materially depend on is rooted in planetary systems and ecosystem services -our economy, cultures, health, quality of life- all nested within the global life support system The environment and the economy are not separate independent systems. Traditionally environmental resources & impacts were considered external factors. Ecosystem services -Available now and essentially free -Crucial to human and biological survival -Experimentation is costly, likely impossible -Understanding will remain incomplete due to complexity EVERYTHING we do or use to live comes FROM the environment and ultimately returns TO the environment. We are dependent on a well functioning biosphere/environment for survival. -everything we materially depend on is rooted in planetary systems and ecosystem services -our economy, cultures, health, quality of life- all nested within the global life support system The environment and the economy are not separate independent systems. Traditionally environmental resources & impacts were considered external factors.

    8. Limits to Growth Economy exists WITHIN environment, and the environment has real, physical limits -limitless expansion within a finite planetary system is impossible -even if possible for the near-future, what costs are we imposing on future generations? -going to look at some of these limits in more detail?Economy exists WITHIN environment, and the environment has real, physical limits -limitless expansion within a finite planetary system is impossible -even if possible for the near-future, what costs are we imposing on future generations? -going to look at some of these limits in more detail?

    10. Global Food Supply -technology transfer and the spread of industrialized farming throughout the world -increases based on new high-yield crops, syntheticfertilizersand pesticides, irrigation and other other techniques -the increase mainly due to the use of fossil fuels, monocultures -prices kept artificially low due to subsidies and externalities-technology transfer and the spread of industrialized farming throughout the world -increases based on new high-yield crops, syntheticfertilizersand pesticides, irrigation and other other techniques -the increase mainly due to the use of fossil fuels, monocultures -prices kept artificially low due to subsidies and externalities

    11. Global Food Supply -technology transfer and the spread of industrialized farming throughout the world -increases based on new high-yield crops, syntheticfertilizersand pesticides, irrigation and other other techniques -the increase mainly due to the use of fossil fuels, monocultures -prices kept artificially low due to subsidies and externalities-technology transfer and the spread of industrialized farming throughout the world -increases based on new high-yield crops, syntheticfertilizersand pesticides, irrigation and other other techniques -the increase mainly due to the use of fossil fuels, monocultures -prices kept artificially low due to subsidies and externalities

    12. Impacts of Food Production -Asian farmers returning to old crops and methods because increased yields from Green Revolution no longer happening - soil is degraded and yields are becoming lower than before -methods are not sustainable without unsustainable inputs of oil and other non-renewable resources-Asian farmers returning to old crops and methods because increased yields from Green Revolution no longer happening - soil is degraded and yields are becoming lower than before -methods are not sustainable without unsustainable inputs of oil and other non-renewable resources

    13. Pollinate crops Honey production Cross pollinate How much are these services worth, and what would it cost to replace $15 billion worth of food per year Help us for free News lately, Honey bees disappearing for unknown reason losing an ecosystem service, but dont know why or how to fix itPollinate crops Honey production Cross pollinate How much are these services worth, and what would it cost to replace $15 billion worth of food per year Help us for free News lately, Honey bees disappearing for unknown reason losing an ecosystem service, but dont know why or how to fix it

    14. Still Not Enough

    15. Overpopulation Exponential population growth Thomas Malthus (~1800) vs. linear food growth Dr. Jones argues will have leveling off of population growth in a little while as seen in developed countries, but that took a long time and in the short term, may not be able to feed ourselves. Exponential population growth Thomas Malthus (~1800) vs. linear food growth Dr. Jones argues will have leveling off of population growth in a little while as seen in developed countries, but that took a long time and in the short term, may not be able to feed ourselves.

    16. Overshoot

    17. Limits: Resources & Energy

    18. Is there a resource problem? "Resource scarcity will encourage further discovery Future stocks are not guaranteed Scarce resources become more difficult and damaging to access "Resource scarcity will encourage substitutes" If there are substitutes... Substitutes may be imperfect, costly, risky

    19. Is there a resource problem? "Resource scarcity will encourage recycling" For some materials conceivably What about materials in use, or energy resources? "Resource scarcity will encourage efficiency of use" The 'rebound effect'

    20. How is "Resource Scarcity"Measured? If a resource is becoming scarce, we would expect its price to go up. We find that the prices of all these resources [copper, coal, oil, and other minerals] have fallen.

    21. Resource Limits What traditional economics saysWhat traditional economics says

    22. Using Prices to Infer Scarcity -how reliable are prices actually? especially when skewed by things like speculation, subsidies All other factors being equal (very small, simple market with lots of assumptions) price is determined by scarcity and utility. All other factors are not equal. What is or should be included in price of a product just from an economics point of view-how reliable are prices actually? especially when skewed by things like speculation, subsidies All other factors being equal (very small, simple market with lots of assumptions) price is determined by scarcity and utility. All other factors are not equal. What is or should be included in price of a product just from an economics point of view

    23. Market Prices Whats Missing? Externalities are a Market Failure Hard to put a price on these, but they should be included This is what economists call it, it is not an outsiders criticism All economists agree on three types of market failures (externalities, public goods, natural monopolies); there is some debate on information as a market failure. QUESTION TO CLASS: can you think of examples products/activities where there may be other costs (borne by other people or society in general) not included in the initial price? Ie.. T-shirt bought in Canada but you didnt incur the cost of poor working conditions Equity, enviro issues Externalities are a Market Failure Hard to put a price on these, but they should be included This is what economists call it, it is not an outsiders criticism All economists agree on three types of market failures (externalities, public goods, natural monopolies); there is some debate on information as a market failure. QUESTION TO CLASS: can you think of examples products/activities where there may be other costs (borne by other people or society in general) not included in the initial price? Ie.. T-shirt bought in Canada but you didnt incur the cost of poor working conditions Equity, enviro issues

    24. Market Prices Negative Externality Examples Countless other examples. Environmental taxes (e.g. carbon tax) or levies (e.g. disposal surcharges for paints/electronics) try to more accurately represent true costs. Countless other examples. Environmental taxes (e.g. carbon tax) or levies (e.g. disposal surcharges for paints/electronics) try to more accurately represent true costs.

    25. Limits: Pollution

    26. Pollution Pollution- The introduction of contaminants to an environment that have a detrimental effect of the environment Different types of pollution In 2001, a series of press reports culminating in a book called Fateful Harvest unveiled a widespread practice of recycling industrial byproducts into fertilizer, resulting in the contamination of the soil with various metals. BP Oil SpillPollution- The introduction of contaminants to an environment that have a detrimental effect of the environment Different types of pollution In 2001, a series of press reports culminating in a book called Fateful Harvest unveiled a widespread practice of recycling industrial byproducts into fertilizer, resulting in the contamination of the soil with various metals. BP Oil Spill

    27. Pollution-Pulp and Paper S Pulp and paper- usable energy-- - Spread all over the country. releasing effluent like this into the environment Pulp and paper mills use chemicals that are the most toxic known to humans today. Although new regulations and technology in the past 5 years have made some serious changes, there are still many chemicals that go under the radar and are not evaluated or measured at all for potential toxicity Recent studies (2010) have identified over 500 chemicals that are not evaluated by any regulatory measure -Howard, P. H., & Muir, D. C. G. (2010). Identifying new persistent and bioaccumulative organics among chemicals in commerce. S Pulp and paper- usable energy-- - Spread all over the country. releasing effluent like this into the environment Pulp and paper mills use chemicals that are the most toxic known to humans today. Although new regulations and technology in the past 5 years have made some serious changes, there are still many chemicals that go under the radar and are not evaluated or measured at all for potential toxicity Recent studies (2010) have identified over 500 chemicals that are not evaluated by any regulatory measure -Howard, P. H., & Muir, D. C. G. (2010). Identifying new persistent and bioaccumulative organics among chemicals in commerce.

    28. Pollution-Oil Does anyone recognize character? Blinky is this 3 eyed character from the Simpsons and is the result of pollution from a nuclear power plant Just a cartoon right? This is a fish found in Fort Chipewan along the Athabasca River, about 600km northeast of Edmonton and downstream from OilSands Development. Reports of fish like this complement many recent studies quantifying and identifying highly toxic substances from the Oil Sands in the Athabasca River Watershed. Why does this matter? People eat the fish, people drink the same water these fish are swimming in. Oil sands development contributes elements toxic at low concentrations to the Athabasca River and its tributaries Erin N. Kellya, David W. Schindlera,1, Peter V. Hodsonb, Jeffrey W. Shortc, Roseanna Radmanovicha, and Charlene C. Nielsena -- Double jawed fish found in Fort Chipewan in 2008- 600km north of edmonton - Fort Chipewan reside downstream of the oil sands. -not only fish health, but increased reports of hospital visits compared to other communities of the same sizeDoes anyone recognize character? Blinky is this 3 eyed character from the Simpsons and is the result of pollution from a nuclear power plant Just a cartoon right? This is a fish found in Fort Chipewan along the Athabasca River, about 600km northeast of Edmonton and downstream from OilSands Development. Reports of fish like this complement many recent studies quantifying and identifying highly toxic substances from the Oil Sands in the Athabasca River Watershed. Why does this matter? People eat the fish, people drink the same water these fish are swimming in. Oil sands development contributes elements toxic at low concentrations to the Athabasca River and its tributaries Erin N. Kellya, David W. Schindlera,1, Peter V. Hodsonb, Jeffrey W. Shortc, Roseanna Radmanovicha, and Charlene C. Nielsena -- Double jawed fish found in Fort Chipewan in 2008- 600km north of edmonton - Fort Chipewan reside downstream of the oil sands. -not only fish health, but increased reports of hospital visits compared to other communities of the same size

    29. This the Shanghai at sunset, as seen from the observation deck of the Jin Mao tower. The sun has not actually dropped below the horizon yet, rather it has reached the smog line. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:ShanghaiairpollutionsThis the Shanghai at sunset, as seen from the observation deck of the Jin Mao tower. The sun has not actually dropped below the horizon yet, rather it has reached the smog line. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Shanghaiairpollutions

    30. Worst Polluted Places This is what the developed world is exporting to poorer countries to maintain our level of services.The factors allowing developed countries to export on the left and the effects on the right. This is what the developed world is exporting to poorer countries to maintain our level of services.The factors allowing developed countries to export on the left and the effects on the right.

    31. Top Ten Worlds Worst Polluted Places (2007) Source: Blacksmith, 2007. The Worlds Worst Polluted Places http://www.blacksmithinstitute.org/wwpp2007/finalReport2007.pdf What do you notice about this list? - All places in developing world! Industrial pollution only an occasional concern for developed world Decades of effort and attention to reduction In poorest countries and regions Pollution is a major cause of death and both chronic and acute illness Shortens lives, damages growth and development Long-term environmental damage Pollution in developing countries is often hidden away from the casual visitor. In most countries the major polluting industries are concentrated in special estates or industrial cities, usually well away from the capitals. Mining and metals processing are frequently located where the ore deposits are found, often in remote and mountainous areas. In these places people are faced with ongoing soil, air and water contamination from antiquated enterprises and the legacy of decades of uncontrolled emissions. These are locations where soils and groundwater have been poisoned, where rivers are saturated with toxins, and radioactive lakes cannot be approached safely, let alone be used for irrigation or drinking. In some towns, life expectancy approaches medieval rates and birth defects are the norm, not the exception. In others, childrens asthma rates are measured above 90 percent and mental retardation is endemic. In such places, life expectancy may be half that of the richest nations and these shortened, debilitated lives are miserable. The developed world may find it scarcely credible that such medieval conditions continue to exist, although it is perhaps only fifty years since parts of Europe and North America were black and infernal. The levels of regulatory and management controls that protect people in modern industrial societies are not yet reflected in developing countries. Even if sub-standard or antiquated factories were brought to modern expectations, the legacy of old contamination from the past would continue to poison the local population. Inadequacies in formal controls are often compounded by weaknesses in civil institutions and the inability to hold governments accountable when they fail to take action. Source: Blacksmith, 2007. The Worlds Worst Polluted Places http://www.blacksmithinstitute.org/wwpp2007/finalReport2007.pdf What do you notice about this list? - All places in developing world! Industrial pollution only an occasional concern for developed world Decades of effort and attention to reduction In poorest countries and regions Pollution is a major cause of death and both chronic and acute illness Shortens lives, damages growth and development Long-term environmental damage Pollution in developing countries is often hidden away from the casual visitor. In most countries the major polluting industries are concentrated in special estates or industrial cities, usually well away from the capitals. Mining and metals processing are frequently located where the ore deposits are found, often in remote and mountainous areas. In these places people are faced with ongoing soil, air and water contamination from antiquated enterprises and the legacy of decades of uncontrolled emissions. These are locations where soils and groundwater have been poisoned, where rivers are saturated with toxins, and radioactive lakes cannot be approached safely, let alone be used for irrigation or drinking. In some towns, life expectancy approaches medieval rates and birth defects are the norm, not the exception. In others, childrens asthma rates are measured above 90 percent and mental retardation is endemic. In such places, life expectancy may be half that of the richest nations and these shortened, debilitated lives are miserable. The developed world may find it scarcely credible that such medieval conditions continue to exist, although it is perhaps only fifty years since parts of Europe and North America were black and infernal. The levels of regulatory and management controls that protect people in modern industrial societies are not yet reflected in developing countries. Even if sub-standard or antiquated factories were brought to modern expectations, the legacy of old contamination from the past would continue to poison the local population. Inadequacies in formal controls are often compounded by weaknesses in civil institutions and the inability to hold governments accountable when they fail to take action.

    32. Worlds Top Ten Pollution Problems 2008 (Alphabetical) Artisanal Gold Mining Contaminated Surface Water Indoor Air Pollution Industrial Mining Activities Groundwater Contamination Metals Smelting and Processing Radioactive Waste and Uranium Mining Untreated Sewage Used lead batteries Urban Air Quality

    33. Climate Change Logged forests = releases CO2, loss of nutrients in the entire system (e.g. erosion, loss of soil fertility, changes in water quality etc...) Climate change-Is there a foreseeable solution? The green areas represent the boreal forest in Canada. The dark green means 80-100% of the forest has been affected by logging and the light green means 40-60 have been affected by logging It is a huge piece of the climate change puzzle. Forests (not just the amazon) sequester- or contain- carbon dioxide. Logging of the forests releases Climate change-Is there a foreseeable solution? The green areas represent the boreal forest in Canada. The dark green means 80-100% of the forest has been affected by logging and the light green means 40-60 have been affected by logging It is a huge piece of the climate change puzzle. Forests (not just the amazon) sequester- or contain- carbon dioxide. Logging of the forests releases

    34. Time for a Different Paradigm? Looking to the Future

    35. holistic approach necessary not just thinking in terms of one project or issue at a time whole system needs to be addressedholistic approach necessary not just thinking in terms of one project or issue at a time whole system needs to be addressed

    36. Finite Earth - 28 renowned scientists attempt to map out the challenges of the 21st century - thresholds and tipping points Climate example: gulf stream interruption due to greenland ice retreat? shifts in temperature due to antarctic melt? instead we need to think about how well systems can adapt to change -> resilience of systems thats why science is so important: scientific understanding can support social decision making in these issues related concept is...next slide- 28 renowned scientists attempt to map out the challenges of the 21st century

    37. Uncertainty & Risk If have 95% probability of successful solution and 15 independent problems that could cause massive failure, then 1-p^n 1-(0.95)^15 0.54 54% chance of failure in something not only about how likely it is that an event occurs also about magnitude Again: we cannot just focus on one part of a complex problem -> Amory Lovins (renowned policy activist) quote Development therefore needs to be guided, not only be Adam Smith's invisible hand but by societal decision-makers...next slideIf have 95% probability of successful solution and 15 independent problems that could cause massive failure, then 1-p^n 1-(0.95)^15 0.54 54% chance of failure in something not only about how likely it is that an event occurs also about magnitude Again: we cannot just focus on one part of a complex problem -> Amory Lovins (renowned policy activist) quote Development therefore needs to be guided, not only be Adam Smith's invisible hand but by societal decision-makers...next slide

    38. Sustainability Weak Sustainability concpet of Sustainability as a tool for decision making and guiding our societies weak in the sense that it does not render natural capital an absolute must for continued economic growth Assumes near perfect substitution Ex. wetland example drain and put in water filtration plant as long as you replace natural capital with human capital its ok Much of the lecture on Monday bunked on this assumption: eg if copper runs out we can find a substitute example: next slide concpet of Sustainability as a tool for decision making and guiding our societies weak in the sense that it does not render natural capital an absolute must for continued economic growth Assumes near perfect substitution Ex. wetland example drain and put in water filtration plant as long as you replace natural capital with human capital its ok Much of the lecture on Monday bunked on this assumption: eg if copper runs out we can find a substitute example: next slide

    39. How much does the Earth cost? 1997 Costanza et al assessed the net worth of the Earth's ecosystems in monetary terms Included all life-support systems from crop pollination to water treatment and pollution assimilation to raw materials provision Asuming we can buy ecosystem services (substitute natural capital) Are we really prepared to pay a price that high just to keep on following our current economic path? More than the world GNP in 2000 ($31 trillion) Also: what about the concepts in Rockstroms talk? How do we substitute soil? Or the lifesupport systems that provide clean air and water?Asuming we can buy ecosystem services (substitute natural capital) Are we really prepared to pay a price that high just to keep on following our current economic path? More than the world GNP in 2000 ($31 trillion) Also: what about the concepts in Rockstroms talk? How do we substitute soil? Or the lifesupport systems that provide clean air and water?

    40. Sustainability Strong Sustainability We have already outlined that there are boundaries to development and certain aspects of natural capital are either very coslty or impossible to substitute Example: wetland drainage takes away much more than just water filtration: flood control, wildlife habitat, recreation ->system thinking, the whole is larger than its sums Strong sustainability takes this into account and requires a non-declining natural capital stock a new branch of economics attempts to find answers to resource and environmental questions seeks to incorporate them into the existing economic framework We have already outlined that there are boundaries to development and certain aspects of natural capital are either very coslty or impossible to substitute Example: wetland drainage takes away much more than just water filtration: flood control, wildlife habitat, recreation ->system thinking, the whole is larger than its sums Strong sustainability takes this into account and requires a non-declining natural capital stock a new branch of economics attempts to find answers to resource and environmental questions seeks to incorporate them into the existing economic framework

    41. Sustainability Ecological Economics Ideals Has been critisized for being vague investing parts of the profits from non-renewables into renewable technology overall working within the planetary boundaries outlined in the film With that being said .Must recognize that there is an alternative if were not striving towards sustainability, then we must be falling away from it, towards unsustainability Has been critisized for being vague investing parts of the profits from non-renewables into renewable technology overall working within the planetary boundaries outlined in the film With that being said .Must recognize that there is an alternative if were not striving towards sustainability, then we must be falling away from it, towards unsustainability

    42. Unsustainability Examples of societies that appears sustainable for a period. Some of Diamonds conclusions are controversial, but drawing attention to these factors is not a bold suggestion. Many others agree. Ex. Easter-island Lake Titicaca East coast cod fishery seemed like an inexhaustible resource, DFO estimates wrong, fish gone Examples of societies that appears sustainable for a period. Some of Diamonds conclusions are controversial, but drawing attention to these factors is not a bold suggestion. Many others agree. Ex. Easter-island Lake Titicaca East coast cod fishery seemed like an inexhaustible resource, DFO estimates wrong, fish gone

    43. Examples of societies that appears sustainable for a period. Some of Diamonds conclusions are controversial, but drawing attention to these factors is not a bold suggestion. Many others agree. Ex. Easter-island Lake Titicaca East coast cod fishery seemed like an inexhaustible resource, DFO estimates wrong, fish gone Examples of societies that appears sustainable for a period. Some of Diamonds conclusions are controversial, but drawing attention to these factors is not a bold suggestion. Many others agree. Ex. Easter-island Lake Titicaca East coast cod fishery seemed like an inexhaustible resource, DFO estimates wrong, fish gone

    44. Growth and Prosperity Whats counted in GDP and whats not? Counted: Public bads crime, disaster relief, disease, pollution clean-up, noise barriers these things only get you back to the welfare state you were at before Not Counted: External costs from pollution, volunteering, unpaid labour, public goods, drawdown on natural capital, loss of biodiversity De-coupling of economic growth and welfare of society Other measures such as Human Development Index (UN), Gross National Happiness (Bhutan)Whats counted in GDP and whats not? Counted: Public bads crime, disaster relief, disease, pollution clean-up, noise barriers these things only get you back to the welfare state you were at before Not Counted: External costs from pollution, volunteering, unpaid labour, public goods, drawdown on natural capital, loss of biodiversity De-coupling of economic growth and welfare of society Other measures such as Human Development Index (UN), Gross National Happiness (Bhutan)

    45. Increases in income and consumption of goods no longer leading to increases in happiness or welfare Similar picture exists for CanadaIncreases in income and consumption of goods no longer leading to increases in happiness or welfare Similar picture exists for Canada

    46. Whats counted in GDP and whats not? Counted: Public bads crime, disaster relief, disease, pollution clean-up, noise barriers these things only get you back to the welfare state you were at before Not Counted: External costs from pollution, volunteering, unpaid labour, public goods, drawdown on natural capital, loss of biodiversity De-coupling of economic growth and welfare of society Other measures such as Human Development Index (UN), Gross National Happiness (Bhutan)Whats counted in GDP and whats not? Counted: Public bads crime, disaster relief, disease, pollution clean-up, noise barriers these things only get you back to the welfare state you were at before Not Counted: External costs from pollution, volunteering, unpaid labour, public goods, drawdown on natural capital, loss of biodiversity De-coupling of economic growth and welfare of society Other measures such as Human Development Index (UN), Gross National Happiness (Bhutan)

    47. Techno-realism Whats counted in GDP and whats not? Counted: Public bads crime, disaster relief, disease, pollution clean-up, noise barriers these things only get you back to the welfare state you were at before Not Counted: External costs from pollution, volunteering, unpaid labour, public goods, drawdown on natural capital, loss of biodiversity De-coupling of economic growth and welfare of society Other measures such as Human Development Index (UN), Gross National Happiness (Bhutan)Whats counted in GDP and whats not? Counted: Public bads crime, disaster relief, disease, pollution clean-up, noise barriers these things only get you back to the welfare state you were at before Not Counted: External costs from pollution, volunteering, unpaid labour, public goods, drawdown on natural capital, loss of biodiversity De-coupling of economic growth and welfare of society Other measures such as Human Development Index (UN), Gross National Happiness (Bhutan)

    48. How Engineers can Help Save the World Environmental engineering should improve the environment, not replace it LEED provides a suite of standards for environmentally sustainable construction. Standardize green building, bring it to the market, and make buyers aware of benefits of green building Developed by non-profit organizations, government agencies, architects, engineers, developers, builders, product manufacturers We dont need to look far Blusson Hall is a Silver LEED certified building Conerstone is Leed certified as well. Participating in the public policy process - ultimately institutions and policy affect both the rate and direction of technological change You are part of a large, complex institutional system. But remember that most of the people in that system can't do complex math and don't know the basic laws of thermodynamics - so you have an important role! Environmental engineering should improve the environment, not replace it LEED provides a suite of standards for environmentally sustainable construction. Standardize green building, bring it to the market, and make buyers aware of benefits of green building Developed by non-profit organizations, government agencies, architects, engineers, developers, builders, product manufacturers We dont need to look far Blusson Hall is a Silver LEED certified building Conerstone is Leed certified as well. Participating in the public policy process - ultimately institutions and policy affect both the rate and direction of technological change You are part of a large, complex institutional system. But remember that most of the people in that system can't do complex math and don't know the basic laws of thermodynamics - so you have an important role!

    49. Questions? Comments?