Life Science - Mr. Galloway. Chapters 10 - 11 Animals: Invertebrates. 10.1 What is an animal? 10.2 Symmetry 10.3 Sponges & Cnidarians 10.4 Worms. 11.1 Mollusks 11.2 Arthropods 11.3 Insects 11.4 Chemical Communication 11.5 Echinoderms. Recommended Website:.
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Chapters 10 - 11
10.1 What is an animal?
10.3 Sponges & Cnidarians
- Need water, food, and oxygen to survive
- Sexual Reproduction
- Heterotrophs * Carnivores (Predators of Prey) (Eat other animals) * Herbivores (Eat plants) * Omnivores (Eat plants and other animals)
95 % Invertebrates (No backbone) - jellyfish, worms, snails, spiders, insects)
5 % Vertebrates (Backbone) – fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals)
When studying and describing animals, some basic body characteristics are important. These include:
Animal Body Symmetry - the way body parts are arranged around a center point.
Directions on the body - used to describe areas on the body of an animal.
Live in both salt and fresh water.
Not plants, since they are heterotrophs (take food into their bodies).
* No specialized tissues.
It feeds by filtering (straining) food particles from the water.
It gets oxygen from the water by diffusion into its cells.
“Spikes” all throughout its body give it extra support.
Reproduction is both asexual and sexual.
- Asexual (budding)
- Sexual (each can produce eggs and sperm)
* After fertilization, a larva is produced.
* The larva looks very different from an adult.
(NOT a jellyfish but a colony of cnidarians)
Coral Reefs = old skeletons of millions of dead corals.
Coral reefs can form in only a few thousand years, when the water temperature and nutrition are right.
* Not millions as some scientists claim.
- Segmented Worms
Leech sucking blood from an arm
Earthworm – Magnified many times
- Use mucus covered gills to catch food particles
Gentle Giants ??
Crustaceans – Crawfish, crabs, lobsters, etc
Arachnids – spiders, mites, ticks, scorpions
Centipedes – venomous predators with 1 pair of legs for each segment (“centipede” means “hundred feet - 100 pairs)
Millipedes – herbivores with two pairs of legs on each segment (“Millipede” means “thousand feet”)
Insects – 3 sections, six legs, 1 pair antennae, usually 1 or 2 pair of wings
1. Complete Metamorphosis a. egg b. larva = looks different from adult c. pupa = inside a protective case d. adult = emerges from case
2. Gradual Metamorphosis a. egg b. nymph (looks like a little adult & grows) c. adult
Pheromones = a chemical released by one animal that affects the behavior of another of the same species.
- Animals use them to attract mates, to recognize colony members, to leave a trail to food, etc.
- Pest Control * Pheromones can be used to control pest, by attracting them and killing them (electric light bug zappers)
Bioluminescence (Fireflies, etc.) Chemical light