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DME (Distance Measuring Equipment ). Frequency Band : Airborne: 1025 MHz – 1150 MHz Ground : 63 MHz below Tx frequency 1025 – 1087 MHz 63 MHz above Tx frequency 1088 – 1150 MHz This gives 126 channels but two codings are used (X and Y) which doubles the capacity. DME.

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dme distance measuring equipment
DME (Distance Measuring Equipment )
  • Frequency Band:
    • Airborne: 1025 MHz – 1150 MHz
    • Ground : 63 MHz below Tx frequency 1025 – 1087 MHz 63 MHz above Tx frequency 1088 – 1150 MHz
    • This gives 126 channels but two codings are used (X and Y) which doubles the capacity
slide2
DME
  • As the name implies , DME provides information on the distance from the aircraft to the ground station
  • Used to establish position along an airway and also to establish hold points
slide3
DME
  • Frequency Band:
    • Airborne: 1025 MHz – 1150 MHz (L band)
    • Ground : 63 MHz below Tx frequency 1025 – 1087 MHz 63 MHz above Tx frequency 1088 – 1150 MHz
    • This gives 126 channels but two codings are used (X and Y) which doubles the capacity
slide4
DME
  • General Principle:
    • Airborne transceiver transmits a pair of pulses
    • (spaced at 12μs for mode X and 30μs for mode Y)
    • Ground transmitter receives the pulses, waits 50μs and then transmits another pair of pulses back to the aircraft
    • Airborne transceiver measures the time between transmission and reception, subtracts the 50μs, multiplies by the speed of light and divides by 2.
slide5
DME
  • This is very simple but gets more complicated when we want to service more than one aircraft
  • We need a method of distinguishing among the signals from up to 100 aircraft.
  • This is done essentially by generating a random set of pulses and correlating with the replies to determine the correct ones.
dme outputs
DME OUTPUTS
  • Distance
  • Speed
  • Time to Station

Notes:

1. The last two are valid only if the aircraft is going

directly towards or away from the ground station.

2. The DME measures SLANT RANGE to the station.

slant range
SLANT RANGE

Altitude

DME Distance (Slant Range)

Ground Range

dme ground station
DME Ground Station

The ground station simply receives a pulse pair, inserts the 50 μs delay and retransmits it.

To reduce the effects of reflections it will not reply to another interrogation for about 60 μs (dead time)

dme ground station squitter
DME Ground StationSQUITTER

The ground station transmits 2700 pulse pairs per second regardless of the number of aircraft interrogating.

The extra pulse pairs are called “squitter”

If there are not enough interrogations to make up 2700 pulse pairs, the ground receiver increases its sensitivity until noise pulses trigger enough replies to make up the difference

If there are too many interrogations, the receiver decreases its sensitivity so that the weakest interrogations get ignored

dme ground station squitter12
DME Ground StationSQUITTER
  • Using squitter has the following advantages:
    • The transmitter average output power is constant
    • The receiver AGC has a constant average signal to work with
    • The ground receiver sensitivity is maintained at the optimum level
    • In the case of overload, the aircraft farthest from the station are dropped off first.
slide13
DME
  • Using squitter has the following advantages:
    • The transmitter average output power is constant
    • The receiver AGC has a constant average signal to work with
    • The ground receiver sensitivity is maintained at the optimum level
    • In the case of overload, the aircraft farthest from the station are dropped off first.
dme as a navaid
DME as a Navaid
  • Accuracy:
  • The ICAO specification for DME is 0.5NM or 3% of distance
    • Tests done on Canadian DMEs show that their errors are less than 30m.
  • Integrity
    • DME ground stations are equipped with monitors which can detect erroneous delays and out-of-tolerance power output levels. These shut the system down if and error is detected
dme as a navaid15
DME as a Navaid

Availability:

As with most systems there is a standby transmitter which takes over when the main one fails.

availability is well above 99.9%

dme as a navaid16
DME as a Navaid

Availability:

As with most systems there is a standby transmitter which takes over when the main one fails.

availability is well above 99.9%