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definition of separatist state
Definition of Separatist State
  • Political separatism is a movement to obtain sovereignty and split a territory or group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another (or one nation from another; a colony from the metropolis). The term is often not accepted by actual separatist groups themselves as they consider it pejorative, and prefer more neutral terms such as self-determination
peaceful v violent separatist movements are often strictly political and peaceful
Peaceful v Violent: Separatist movements are often strictly political and peaceful.
  • There has been a variable, generally peaceful separatist movement in the province of Quebec, Canada for the last thirty years (with a brief period of violence culminating in the October Crisis),
  • And peaceful movements ending in the break-up of Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union.
  • Singapore also peacefully seceded from the Malaysian Federation.
violent movements
Violent Movements:
  • Separatism is also often a violent response to a past military takeover. Around the world many terrorist groups espouse separatism as the only way to achieve their goal of national liberation. These include the Basque ETA in France and Spain, Sikh separatists in India during the 1980s, the IRA in Ireland at the turn of the century and the Front de Libération du Québec in the 1960s, culminating in the October Crisis in 1970. These guerrilla campaigns can also lead to full-blown civil wars as has been seen in Chechnya.
yugoslavia now 5 countries
Yugoslavia=Now 5 Countries
  • Violence is usually reduced when there exist political means that can be used to gain more political and economic autonomy within the current constitutional order.
  • Free elections and referenda often help reduce tensions. Very few countries are willing to acknowledge that they are divisible, however.
  • The wars erupting with the break-up of Yugoslavia are a principal example of that, despite constitutional provisions allowing division and referenda.
why separate
Why Separate?
  • Separatist movements are often superficially based upon nationalism or religious fervour.
  • More often than not, however, feelings of inadequate political clout and economics play an important role.
  • Economics can also be seen in the break-up of Czechoslovakia; one of the main causes was Slovakia's reluctance to abandon state-run industries, which were the core of its economy.
  • The Czech Republic was far more prepared to embrace the free market, and thus the countries parted.
  • Quebec is also an example of how political marginalization can lead to separatist ambitions. Throughout the first century of Canadian Confederation, Quebec was politically and economically dominated by a small minority of AnglophoneMontrealers.
  • Rejection of this status quo led to the growth of Quebec-first separatist groups in the 1960s and '70s.
suppression corruption
  • Spain's Basque areas, which have not been independent for millennia, developed violent separatist groups in reaction to the violent suppression of Francisco Franco's regime.
  • A similar pattern was followed in Ethiopia where Eritrean rebels were far more angry at despotism and corruption than passionate about the nation of Eritrea which does not have a long or distinctive history
  • The northern Italian nations were independent for centuries (for example Veneto was independent from the 10th to 19th centuries, Liguria was independent for 7 centuries).
  • The northern Italian separatism is not only economic, but also linguistic (gallo-romance languages group) and cultural.
recent separatist movements
Recent Separatist Movements
  • Czechoslovakia — into the Czech Republic and Slovakia
  • Ethiopia — separation of Eritrea
  • Indonesia — separation of East Timor
  • Yugoslavia — into Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Slovenia, and Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (now Serbia and Montenegro)
  • Soviet Union — into Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan
Abkhazia –western end of Georgia
  • Chechnya – Russian province
  • Nagorno-Karabakh btwn Azerb. & Armenia
  • Puntland-northeastern Somalia
  • Somaliland – northwestern Somalia
  • South Ossetia – part of Georgia
  • Transnistria – part of Moldovia
  • Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus UN does not recognize it, only Turkey does
  • State of Palestine
is your country here
Is Your Country Here???
  • Angola — Cabinda
  • Belgium — Both Flemish and Walloon separatists exist, but the Flemish are more prominent (See Flemish movement)
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina — Serbs, Croats and Bosniaks
  • Burma — Karens (Karen National Union, east Burma) and Kachin.
  • Canada — Province of Quebec (FLQ, Parti Québécois, Bloc Québécois), Western Canada (Separation Party of Alberta, Western Independence Party)
  • China — Taiwan, Inner Mongolia, Tibet, Xinjiang (East Turkestan Islamic Movement)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo - Katanga area
  • France — Corsica, Brittany, and Savoy
  • Germany — Bavaria, Alemannic Separatism
  • India — Kashmir, Sikhs, Bodoland, Assam (or "Asom") and Nagaland
  • India — Kashmir, Sikhs, Bodoland, Assam (or "Asom") and Nagaland
  • Indonesia — Aceh, Riau, West Papua, Moluccas
  • Iraq — Kurds and Shiites
  • Iran — Kurds, Arabs and Azeris
  • Israel — Palestinians
  • Italy — Padania, (Lega Nord), South Tyrol, Sicily
  • Nigeria
  • Morocco — Polisario front in Western Sahara
or here
Or Here?
  • Pakistan — Kashmir
  • Philippines — Muslim separatists in south (Moro)
  • Russia — Chechnya
  • Serbia and Montenegro — Kosovo (Kosovo Liberation Army) and Montenegro
  • Senegal — Casamance
  • Somalia — Somaliland
  • South Africa — Zulu areas
  • Spain — Basque (ETA) region, Catalonia, and Galicia
maybe here
Maybe Here?
  • Sri Lanka — Tamils (Tamil Tigers)
  • Sudan — Tribal animist and Christian south
  • St. Kitts and Nevis — Nevis
  • Sweden — Terra Scania
  • Syria — Kurds
  • Turkey — Kurds
  • United Kingdom — Northern Ireland (IRA, Sinn Féin, Social Democratic and Labour Party), Scotland (Scottish National Party), Wales, and Cornwall
  • United States- Alaska-Hawaii-Puerto Rico
  • See also: List of active autonomist and secessionist move
other uses of the term separatism
Other Uses of the Term Separatism
  • Ethnic separatism is also used to refer to groups that attempt to separate themselves culturally and economically or racially though not always seeking political autonomy. Examples of this include:
  • religious groups whose members believe they should not interact with anyone except co-religionists
groups, for example groups supporting white separatism or black separatism. See identity politics and racial separatism.
  • lesbian-feminist separatism refers to the use of sexual orientation as a political statement.
  • those who advocate a strict separation of church and state often term themselves "separationists" (with "accommodationists" being the converse).
the end