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Chapter 9 Fracture Testing. Impact Testing. Impact Testing. Charpy Impact Testing. (a) Charpy impact testing machine. (b) Charpy impact test specimen. (c) Izod impact test specimen. Energy Absorbed vs. Temperature. Energy absorbed versus temperature for a steel in annealed

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Impact Testing

Impact Testing

Charpy Impact Testing

(a) Charpy impact

testing machine. (b) Charpy impact

test specimen. (c) Izod impact test



Energy Absorbed vs. Temperature

Energy absorbed versus

temperature for a steel in annealed

and in quenched and tempered

states. (Adapted with permission

from J. C. Miguez Suarez and K. K.

Chawla, Metalurgia-ABM, 34 (1978)‏



Temperature Effect on Fracture Surface

Effect of temperature

on the morphology of fracture

surface of Charpy steel specimen.

Test temperatures Ta < Tb < Tc <

Td. (a) Fully brittle fracture. (b, c)‏

Mixed-mode fractures. (d) Fully

ductile (fibrous) fracture.


Charpy Testing of Steel: DBTT

Results of Charpy tests

for AISI 1018 steel (cold drawn).


Drop-Weight Test Specimen

Drop-weight test



Charpy V-notch Curve

Charpy V-notch curve

for a pressure-vessel steel. Note

that the NDT temperature

determined by the drop-weight

test corresponds to the high-tough

region of the Charpy curve.

Pneumatic pressurization; material:

21/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, yield stress

590 MPa. (After W. J. Langford,

Can. Met. Quart., 19 (1980) 13.)‏


Oscilloscope Record

(a) Typical oscilloscope

record of an instrumented Charpy

impact test. (b) Schematic

representation of (a).


Fracture Toughness Test Specimens

Typical ASTM standard

plane-strain fracture toughness

test specimens. (a) Compact

tension. (b) Bending. (c)‏

Photograph of specimens of

various sizes. Charpy and tensile

specimens are also shown, for

comparison purposes. (Courtesy

of MPA, Stuttgart.)‏


Load Displacement Curves vs. Fracture Toughness Test

Schematic of typical

load–displacement curves in a KIc



Plastic Zone at Crack Tip

Plastic zone at the x1

crack tip in a plate of finite



Displacement Measurement

Assembly for

measuring displacement in a

notched specimen.


Variation of Kc with Specimen Thicckness

Variation in Kc with

flaw size, specimen thickness, and

specimen width.


Plastic Hinge Mechanism

“Plastic hinge”

mechanism of deformation.


J-Integral Testing

Method for

determining JIc. (a) Load identical

specimens to different

displacements. (b) Measure the

average crack extension by heat

tinting. (c) Calculate J for each

specimen. (d) Plot J versus a to

find JIc.


Flexure Test

Normal stresses along

a section of beam for linearly

elastic material.


Three-Point and Four-Point Bend (Flexure) Tests


Application of loads

and bending moment diagrams for

(a) three-point bending and (b)‏

four-point bending tests.


Miniaturized Specimen:Four-Point Bending

Shematic drawing of

the miniaturized disk-bend test.

(Adapted from H. Li, F. C. Chen,

and A. J. Ardell, Met. Trans A, 22

(1991) 2061.)‏


Fracture Testing Methods for Ceramics


methods for brittle materials. (a)‏

Double-cantilever beam (DCB). (b)‏

Double torsion. (c) Notch flexure.


Chevron Notch Test

Chevron notch test.

(a) Schematic of the test

arrangement and the details of the

notch plane. (b) The chevron tip

length, a0, can be measured from

optical micrographs of broken

specimens. (c) Chevron short-rod



Hardness Indentation in Brittle Materials

Fractures produced by

hardness indentations in (a) AsS3

glass (courtesy of B. R. Lawn and

B. J. Hockey) and (b) Al203.


Plastic Deformation and Crack in Indentation of Brittle Material


representation of indentation

generating a plastic deformation

region and a semicircular crack.


Fracture Toughness: Comparison by Different test Methods

Comparison between

conventional and indentation

fracture toughness determinations

for glasses and ceramics. (From G.

R. Anstis, P. Chankitul, B. R. Lawn,

and D. B. Marshall, J. Am. Cer. Soc.,

64 (1981) 533.)‏


Adhesion of Thin Film to Substrate: Testing

Indentation tests for

the determination of toughness of

bond between substrate and thin

film; (a) method used for ductile

coating on brittle substrate (typical

of electronic components); (b)‏

method used for brittle coatings

on ductile substrate; (c) calculated

normalized energy release rate as

a function of normalized crack

diameter. (Adapted from J. J.

Vlassak, M. D. Drory, and W. D.

Nix, J. Mater. Res., 12 (1997) 100.)‏