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Applications of the Truman Doctrine. Berlin Creation of Israel China (Formosa / Taiwan) “Good Neighbor Policy” (Latin America) Korea Cuba Iran Vietnam Afghanistan. Berlin Airlift (1948-1949). Chinese Revolution (1949). 1. Civil war interrupted by WWII 2. Mao Zedong (Communist) unites

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applications of the truman doctrine
Applications of the Truman Doctrine
  • Berlin
  • Creation of Israel
  • China (Formosa / Taiwan)
  • “Good Neighbor Policy” (Latin America)
  • Korea
  • Cuba
  • Iran
  • Vietnam
  • Afghanistan
chinese revolution 1949
Chinese Revolution (1949)

1. Civil war interrupted by WWII

2. Mao Zedong (Communist) unites

poor farmers vs.

Chiang Kai-Shek (Nationalist)

western/ modernizers

3. Nationalists flee to Formosa/ Taiwan

- establish competing “Chinas”

4. People’s Republic of China vs.

Democratic Republic of China

5. US recognizes Nationalist government

in Taiwan (until 1979)

korean war 1950 1953
Korean War (1950-1953)
  • Japan withdraws after WWII
  • North controlled by USSR/ South by US
  • Lack of agreement re: direction = no elections in 1948
  • Fighting breaks out between KOREANS when Northerners attack across 38th Parallel
  • Competing Governments established:
    • Republic of Korea (UN backed)
    • Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (PRC, w/ aid from USSR)
  • Public disagreement b/w Truman and Gen. MacArthur over war strategy → MacArthur fired
  • Fighting lasts 3 years, Armistice establishes DMZ and still-standing cease-fire
cuban revolution 1959
Cuban Revolution (1959)
  • Series of attempts to overthrow US-backed Batista regime (imperialism unit) finally successful in 1959
  • New government, w/ Fidel Castro at helm, begins nationalizing foreign industries
  • Attempt “Charm Offensive” w/ US government
    • But meets with V.P. Richard Nixon, very conservative
  • US breaks off trade with Cuba
    • Starts planning counter-revolution
  • Cuba initiates trade relationship with USSR
  • US imposes total embargo on Cuban trade and travel. (Still in place)
  • Bay of Pigs Fiasco - 1961
early evaluation of the truman doctrine
Early evaluation of the Truman Doctrine

China + Korea + Cuba =

WE ARE NOT WINNING!

middle east
Middle East

Which countries of the middle east became “pawns” to the greater Cold War conflict?

Which countries were more closely associated with the Soviets? With the US?

Identify specific instances in which maintaining access to oil drove American foreign policy in the Middle East between 1947 and 1973.

processing
Processing

Create a mind map that organizes the information we’ve discussed so far in the early Cold War.

Be certain to include the following (as a start)

- policies

- events

- involved countries

- individuals

you ve learned the cold war fear
You’ve learned the Cold War = Fear
  • We are going to think about how Americans responded to that fear during the first couple of decades (what we’ll call the EARLY Cold War.)
  • What is the general pattern of fear during the early Cold War? Start high and fall off? Rise and fall? Gradually increase?
  • What specific events from the early Cold War might have influenced the pattern?
  • How do you respond to fear?
fears of communist infiltrators

Fears of Communist Infiltrators

Do you really know your neighbor?

red scare v 2 0
Red Scare, v. 2.0

Phase 1 – Commies everywhere

Phase 2 – Commies invading the US

  • HUAC
  • McCarthyism
  • Blacklisting
  • Red-baiting
  • Alger Hess
  • Spies
timeline
Timeline
  • August 6, 1945 – Hiroshima
    • Nuclear Age is initiated
    • US has monopoly, believes it can force concessions from USSR
  • August 29, 1949 – Soviet Union detonates a copy of “Fat Man”
    • Surprised US how quickly they developed it.
  • November , 1952 – US detonates hydrogen bomb
    • Multi-stage THERMONUCLEAR
    • Approx. 1000x the destructive capacity of A-bomb
  • 1955 – Soviet Union detonates hydrogen bomb
    • 1961 – Tsar Bomb (largest ever tested)
  • Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles make defending against an attack nearly impossible
strategizing the cold war
Strategizing the Cold War

Nuclear proliferation + ICBMs = no ability to “out threaten” the opponent.

New policy = DETERRENCE

Seek to deter hostility by promising to retaliate with equal or greater force.

New concept = Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)

The smallest conflicts, following a policy of deterrence, will potentially escalate until both are forced to use nuclear weapons.

If nuclear weapons are EVER used, it will be game over for everyone.

arms race spurs a space race
Arms Race spurs a Space Race
  • Tech race opens doors of new opportunity.
  • Soviets win – Sputnik, 1957
  • US responds with culture –wide shift
    • Emphasis in schools on science, math, and engineering
    • Boys exclusively
  • US launches satellite 4 months later
  • Soviets put first man in space – Yuri Gagarin, 1961
  • US sends Alan Sheppard 3 weeks later
space race part deux
Space Race, part Deux
  • US proclaims Moon Race, 1961
      • Missed chance for cooperation with Soviet Union when Kennedy assassinated.
  • Apollo 11 lands on Moon, 1969

We choose to go to the moon. We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills,

“That’s one small step for (a) man, one giant leap for mankind”

fears of nuclear attack

Fears of Nuclear Attack

Can we ever be safe?

50s counter culture

50s counter-culture

-the Beats

-Rock n’ Roll

-Alienation is Cool

slide40

Dean stands in the back, saying, 'God! Yes!' -- and clasping his hands in prayer and sweating. 'Sal, Slim knows time, he knows time.' Slim sits down at the piano and hits two notes, two C's, then two more, then one, then two, and suddenly the big burly bass-player wakes up from a reverie and realizes Slim is playing 'C-Jam Blues' and he slugs in his big forefinger on the string and the big booming beat begins and everybody starts rocking and Slim looks just as sad as ever, and they blow jazz for half an hour, and then Slim goes mad and grabs the bongos and plays tremendous rapid Cubana beats and yells crazy things in Spanish, in Arabic, in Peruvian dialect, in Egyptian, in every language he knows, and he knows innumerable languages. Finally the set is over; each set takes two hours. Slim Gaillard goes and stands against a post, looking sadly over everybody's head as people come to talk to him. A bourbon is slipped into his hand. 'Bourbon-orooni -- thank-you-ovauti ...' Nobody knows where Slim Gaillard is. Dean once had a dream that he was having a baby and his belly was all bloated up blue as he lay on the grass of a California hospital. Under a tree, with a group of colored men, sat Slim Gaillard. Dean turned despairing eyes of a mother to him. Slim said, 'There you go-orooni.' Now Dean approached him, he approached his God; he thought Slim was God; he shuffled and bowed in front of him and asked him to join us. 'Right-orooni,' says Slim; he'll join anybody but won't guarantee to be there with you in spirit. Dean got a table, bought drinks, and sat stiffly in front of Slim. Slim dreamed over his head. Every time Slim said, 'Orooni,' Dean said 'Yes!' I sat there with these two madmen. Nothing happened. To Slim Gaillard the whole world was just one big orooni.'

slide46

Lead up to US Involvement in Vietnam

    • A. French Colony since 1600s
  • 1. Abandoned during WWI and WWII
  • 2. Post WWII, independence movement led by Ho Chi Minh
  • B. Following WWII, US funded effort to reassert control
  • C. Vietnamese Autonomy
  • 1. Peace Treaty in 1954
  • 2. Elections to be held
  • a. Ngo Dinh Diem installed as dictator in French controlled south
            • had lived in New Jersey
            • cancels elections
  • b. Ho Chi Minh (communist) elected in North
  • - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence
  • 3. Diem not popular
  • a. oppressive and anti-Buddhist
  • b. CIA participates in coup = Diem executed
slide47

II. US Military Involvement

  • A. Gulf of Tonkin incident
  • 1. N. Vietnamese patrol (fishing?) boat advances towards US military spy ship
  • 2. US fires on it and retreats from region
  • 3. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gives President authority to make war
  • III. Why the US cares
  • A. Cold War – Soviet Union helping the North
  • B. Domino Theory
          • if one small southeast Asian country falls, they all will
  • IV. Fighting the War - A Quagmire
  • A. Original intentions to offer assistance to South Vietnamese
  • B. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution leads to US bombardment
  • 1. Operation Rolling Thunder (2X total bombardments used in WWII)
  • C. Failure to force surrender necessitates limited ground troops
  • D. Ineffectiveness of ground campaign requires more troops