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CHAPTER 8 Deviance and Social Control. Section 1: Deviance Section 2: Crime. Section 1: Deviance. Objectives:. Explain the nature and social functions of deviance. Compare the theories that have been proposed to explain deviance. Section 1: Deviance. Nature of Deviance.

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CHAPTER 8Deviance and Social Control

Section 1: Deviance

Section 2: Crime


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Section 1: Deviance

Objectives:

  • Explain the nature and social functions of deviance.

  • Compare the theories that have been proposed to explain deviance.


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Section 1: Deviance

Nature of Deviance

  • Because there are so many norms governing behavior, occasional violations are unavoidable

  • What is considered deviant varies from society to society


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Section 1: Deviance

Social Functions of Deviance

  • Clarifying Norms – defines the boundaries of acceptable behavior

  • Unifying the Group – serves to draw the line between conforming members of society and “outsiders” – the nonconforming members

  • Diffusing Tension – acts that allow individuals to relieve tension without disrupting the basic fabric of society


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Section 1: Deviance

Social Functions of Deviance

(continued)

  • Promoting Social Change – can help prompt social change by identifying problem areas

  • Providing Jobs – provides legitimate jobs for a wide range of people


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Section 1: Deviance

Theories of Deviance

  • Functionalists – as the natural outgrowth of the values, norms, and structures of society

  • Conflict Theorists – as a result of competition and social inequality

  • Interactionists – as either natural in people with weak ties to the community (control theory), as a learned behavior (cultural transmission theory), or as a label (labeling theory)


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Section 2: Crime

Objectives:

  • Identify the principal types of crime in the United States.

  • Explain the characteristics of the American criminal-justice system.


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Section 2: Crime

Principal Types of Crime in the U.S.

  • Violent Crime– includes murder, robbery; most victims are African Americans

  • Crime Against Property – includes burglary, larceny, vehicle theft; more common than violent crimes

  • Victimless Crime – includes prostitution, gambling, illegal drug use; offender is the only victim


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Section 2: Crime

Principal Types of Crime in the U.S.

(continued)

  • White Collar Crime – committed by high-status individuals in the course of their professions; includes fraud, tax evasion, embezzlement

  • Organized Crime – the pursuit of crime as a big business


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Section 2: Crime

American Criminal-Justice System

  • Police – have most immediate control over who is arrested for a criminal act

  • Courts – determine the guilt or innocence of an accused person by means of a trial and assigns some form of punishment if there is a guilty finding

  • Corrections – sanctions used to punish those found guilty of crimes

  • Juvenile-Justice System – used to punish offenders younger than age 18