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Conference Summary. Flavor Physics and CP Violation Daegu, Republic of Korea, Oct 9, 2004. Thanks for dinner. Mr. chairman …. Flavor Physics Deep Questions. Generations? Three? Hierarchy of masses? Texture of mixings? Is flavor physics tied to EW symmetry breaking?

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    1. Conference Summary Flavor Physics and CP Violation Daegu, Republic of Korea, Oct 9, 2004 FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    2. Thanks for dinner. Mr. chairman … FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    3. Flavor Physics Deep Questions • Generations? Three? • Hierarchy of masses? • Texture of mixings? • Is flavor physics tied to EW symmetry breaking? • CP violation for baryogenesis? • Quarks vs Leptons? FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    4. What flavorists do to answer these • Invent constructs that answer one or more questions, eg • Many species of SUSY/SUGRA (actually, do these answer any flavor Qs?) • Mass matrix textures • Brane overlaps, extended technicolor, preons, leptoquarks,… • If construct is … • predictive → Test by precise measurement • not predictive → Ignore it • Fix construct. If fix is • Ugly (eg, SUSY) → swallow hard, reinvent construct and repeat from top • Discusting (eg, SUSY) → swallow hard, reinvent construct and repeat from top • Unavailable (e-technicolor?) → swallow hard, reinvent construct and repeat from top FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    5. What flavorists really do to answer these • Most of the work goes into tests • It is not fruitful to test constructs individually • Ever more precise results are collected in a model that does not address flavor But … • What if the model cannot accommodate some results? • What if the model can always accommodate results? FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    6. If the “standard” cannot accommodate results • Stockholm • Adopt a new standard. The new standard may or may not address the questions • If it does → success! • If it does not → repeat from top • If the “standard” accommodates results … • Little thought has been expended here. The answer could be weird indeed (eg, anthropic principle/quantum cosmology) FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    7. Goals revisited While answering the “deep questions” remains the primary goal, the daunting task of determining the (possibly changing) “standard” is interesting enough in its own right. We should succeed at describing the universe in detail, if not in explaining why the universe is that way! FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    8. The flavor of leptons … Neutrino mass and mixing FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    9. Neutrino masses: mn  0 firmly established • Dirac mass • Like quark sector • New fields: right handed n’s. How many? Active vs inactive. • nCKM naturally appears (PMNS†) • DL=DLe+DLm+DLt=0 but DLi  0 • CP → new cosmic avenues, eg, leptogenesis • Quark-like questions: Spectrum? Texture? † Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    10. Majorana mass • New phenomenon → new questions • New scalars/VEVs? If so, what new scale? • |DL|=2 • Active (DIw=1) • Triplet higgs • Dim 5 see-saw • Sterile+active • Bare mass/singlet higgs FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    11. Neutrino mass evidence • Confirmed • Atmospheric: • Dm2 ~ 210-3 eV2 • near- maximal • Solar: • Dm2 ~ 8 10-5 eV2 • non-maximal • Unconfirmed • LSND: • Dm2 ~ 0.1-10 eV2 • Small angle P(n1→n2) = sin22qsin2(1.27Dm2L/E) FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    12. Maximal 2-3 mixing: Patterns Inverted Hierarchy Normal Hierarchy • bb0n rate larger (if Majorana) • SN1987A (if q13 0)? • bb0n rate tiny • Quark-like FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    13. With LSND • Z width → exactly 3 active n’s with m<MZ/2 → sterile • Pure nm-ns mixing excluded for atmosferic (SK, MACRO) • Pure ne-ns mixing excluded for solar (SK, SNO) FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    14. Dm2 sin2q13 3-Flavor Analysis result (Y. Wang, ICHEP04,preliminary) Dm2 sin2q13 m3 normal m2 m1 m2 m1 inverted sin2q13 m3 Best fit: Dm2 = 2.7x10-3ev2, sin2q23 = 0.5, sin2q13 = 0.0 sin2q23 FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    15. A busy future [Kobayashi, S K Kang] • Confirm/refute LSND →MiniBooNE • Detect 1-3 mixing • Find CP violation • Lot’s of experiments continuing and proposed • Reactor (Angra dos Reis, Braidwood, Chooz-II, Diablo Canyon, Daya Bay, Kashiwazaki, Krasnoyarsk) (show next) • bb (CUORE, GENIUS, Majorana, super-NEMO, MOON,EXO) • LBL (K2K-II, MINOS, CNGS, NOvA, T2K) FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    16. Double Chooz KASKA Braidwood Daya Bay Sensitivities tosin22q13 @ 90%CL Power Baseline Detector Overburden FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    17. The CKM matrix Never leave important measurements un-re-measured [Glazov] FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    18. Status: individual elements(unitarity not assumed) Km3,Ke3: 1% Nuc-b: 0.2% FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    19. A tremendous effort: [Glazov] • CKM unitarity alive! • Need theory for FF • Use quenched lattice QCD: • Obtain • Average FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    20. Ademollo-Gatto theorem e: sym bkg = ( for chiral pert. Thy.) With apologies to experts • Two new calculations of FF • Quenched lattice QCD • Chiral perturbation theory • Only 1 agrees with old FF calculation, use that one (democracy gone mad?!) Quenched error  20% of e2 is 2% FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    21. B→Xuln: 10% B → Xcln: 1% n+d→c+X: 5% W → cX: 10% Status: individual elements(unitarity not assumed) Km3,Ke3: 1% Nuc-b: 0.2% Really? Never leave important measurements un-re-measured! FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    22. Over-constrain unitarity triangle … a test of CKM theory of flavor FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    23. Sides FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    24. Vcb from inclusive semileptonic decays • Theory • is the decay of a free quark • vanishes • Local quark-hadron duality used mildly 6 parameters FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    25. Moment Analysis • Lepton Energy • Hadronic Mass • Photon Energy where FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    26. BaBaR fit [Barberio] P.Gambino, N.Uraltsev hep-ph/0401063, 0403166 c2/dof =20/15 Red line: HQE fitYellow band: theory errors FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    27. Global analysis Bauer et al hep-ph/0408002 • Data: BaBar, BELLE, CDF, CLEO, DELPHI • With/without 1/mc expansion • Compare mass schemes: 1S, PS, … • Half integer hadronic momentserror badly behaved Yellow/green: FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    28. BABAR BELLE hA1(w) |Vcb| x 10-3 w w Vcb from exclusive semileptonic decays • HQET • Luke’s Thm: • Extrapolation to w = 1 constrained by unitarity/analiticity (Boyd et al) • Largest uncertainty: FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    29. Vcb Results F (1)|Vcb|=(37.8  0.9) x10-3 r2 =1.54  0.14 inclusive exclusive BABAR (D*l n) FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    30. Vub from inclusive semileptonic decays • Theory as in b→c • Signal swamped by • Kinematic cuts: better Best: Combine mX and q2 Effect of shape function (model) FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    31. 5% ! (by decree?) Y.Kwon: What are we gonna do about this? Vub from inclusive semileptonic decay [Simonetto] • Shape function f(x) from b→sg • Universality of f(x) and WA uncertainties ~10% (Bauer et al) Belle: (5.54  0.42  0.55  0.42  0.27) x 10-3 BaBar: (5.18  0.41  0.40  0.23  0.27) x 10-3 stat exp fit OPE FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    32. Vub from exclusive semileptonic decay [Okamoto] • Need form factors • Use lattice QCD CLEO FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    33. Vub HFAG summary • No LEP • No exclusives • Overall consistency • Vub(endpoint) < Vub(mX-q cut) |Vub|=(4.70  0.44) x 10-3 FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    34. Angles FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    35. Unitarity triangle angles • CP in interference between decay and mixing • Theoretically clean if • common final state is a CP eigenstate • one weak phase only (or dominant) FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    36. With apologies to T. Gershon Notation (plagiarized from Ligeti@ICHEP04) FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    37. sin(2f1) from b →ccs [Trabelsi] FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    38. Over-constrain, finally! Future of precise determination: • CKM works! • Keep piling on observables • cos(2f1) cute, but adds little to this program • Precision physics: need clean observables • Vub best direction to test this • Best direction:┴ to sin(2f1) • is 1-(r+ih)→Vtd • B→Xdg (B→rg<1.2x10-6) • DM(Bs)/ DM(Bd) • sin(2f3) FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    39. Progress! Note: same scale FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    40. sin(2f1) from b →ccd, b →qqs Ligeti Theo-guess | –hf Sf – sin(2f1) | New: FPCP04 Note in particular FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    41. New physics? Model builder heaven… [Yoshikawa, Kwon, Ko] • SfK and Sh’K can be accommodated (unlike O(1) deviations) • Take, eg, SUSY • B→Xsgconstrains LR mass insertions • LL/RR penguins → sizeable b→s • Start to be constrained by FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    42. B factories have measured f2, f3 [Gershon, Bevan, Albert, Hazumi, Zupan] • Sin(2f2) • B→pp • Br(p0p0), C00 measured • Isospin analysis • B→rr • Br(r0r0)/Br(r+r-)<0.04 (90% CL) • a – aeff small! • B→rp Dalitz plot • Pentagon analysis • Needs Br and ACP for B→r+p-, r0p0, r-p+ • Instead: SU(3)+ factorization assumptions FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    43. Color suppressed • sin(f3) • Interference betweencommon D0, D0 final state • Asymmetry depends on • Dalitz: difference in errors fromdiffering rB determination BaBar Bound (B→DK) Belle central value (B→DK) FPCP04 updated FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    44. Direct CP Violation: The last nail onthe superweak coffin! [Lange,Graziani] • Superweak: CP in DB=2 only (or DS=2) • CP in decay (DB=1): weak (fk) and strong (dk) phases, different Theory can accommodate this (not explain it) FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    45. Many other ACP in charmless decays New FPCP04: B0gKSp0g (incl. K*gKSp0) S = -0.58 0.11; C = +0.03 0.34 0.11 +0.46 –0.38 FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    46. Summary of the summary? • CKM, a precision science • PMNS, like CKM 20 years ago • Break with paradigm? • Neutrino masses • Hints in b→sss? • Baby steps towards answering the “deep questions”! • Lot’s of work ahead [Iijima, Menzemer, Dornan]Thank you! FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004

    47. Mark your calendars CKM 2005 March 15 through 18 La Jolla (San Diego), California UCSD La Jolla Shores Beach FPCP, Daegu Oct 9, 2004