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  • Updated On : Tannaim. “Repeaters” of Torah + tradition. Collected in Mishnah. MISHNAH: continued to attract commentaries:

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Tannaim l.jpg

  • “Repeaters” of Torah + tradition.

  • Collected in Mishnah

Http www acs ucalgary ca elsegal talmudmap mishnah html l.jpg

MISHNAH: continued to attract commentaries:

Now traditional to print the MISHNAH along with respected commentaries made in Middle Ages.

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  • Discusses “HALACHAH” Jewish Law.


  • Uses Bible, but does not discuss it directly.

  • NOT essays, but discussions.

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Mishnah: 2 uses

  • Mishnah: A collection of discussions

  • mishnah: each discrete discussion

  • The Mishnah is made up of all the mishnahs…

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First mishnah “When to recite Evening Shema?”

R. Eliezer, “From when the priests enter to eat offerings, until end of first watch”

Sages, “Until Midnight”

R. Gamaliel, “Until dawn”

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Gamaliel, “If it is not dawn yet, you must

recite Shema, even if Sages say you have

only until Midnight.”

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Why did sages say until Midnight?

  • “To keep a man far from sin.”

  • “Fence around the Torah”

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2. When to recite the morning Shema?

  • When you can tell apart blue and white.

  • R. Eliezer says, “Blue and Green, and do it before sunrise”.

  • R. Joshua says, “within 3 hours of sunrise: like reading Torah”.

    • NO RESOLUTION. First option preferable

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3. Recline, or stand for shema?

  • Shammai: evening you must recline morning you must stand

  • “When you lie down and when you rise up.” (Deut. 6:7)

  • Hillel: However you want

  • “And as you go about your way”

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If Hillel is right, then why does Bible say “when you lie down… rise up”

Majority position: since Shema-time is about the time people go to bed and wake up.

Very simple answer, but it needs to be said.

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R. Tarfon down… rise up”

  • Recites according to Shammai

  • Moral: following Shammai is dangerous…

  • But Hillel’s position is not binding on everyone.

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4. Number of blessings down… rise up”

  • “They” say no changes to the custom.

  • “Seal off a blessing” No description of what this means.

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5. Exodus at night? down… rise up”

  • Unclear references.

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Issue: down… rise up”

Mishnah not final word

more questions raised than answered

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Interpretation. down… rise up”

  • Mishnah requires study, interpretation.

  • Rabbinic interpreters recorded their work over the centuries.

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Tannaim down… rise up”

  • “Repeaters” of Torah + tradition.

  • Collected in Mishnah

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Mishnah down… rise up”Discussed by the


Famous discussions remembered

Others hypothetical

“R. So-&-so would have said…”

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Discussions down… rise up”Gemara= “Traditions”

of the Amoraim

concerning Mishnah

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Gemara collected down… rise up”

  • Gemara discussions on particular mishnah paragraphs are collected with the Mishnah quotations.

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New Tradition: down… rise up”


Discussions stemming from Mishnah.

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MISHNAH down… rise up”+ GEMARA----------------TALMUD

On handout diagram, A & B sections are the Talmud properSurrounding sections are later additions by medieval commentators, etc.

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2 Talmud down… rise up”s


  • 4th c. CE6th c. CE.

  • YerushalmiBavli

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Bavli down… rise up”

  • Longer

  • More Authoritative

  • Better edited

  • “THE Talmud” usually refers to Bavli.

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Extent down… rise up”

More than ½ Mishnah discussed

Each mishnah followed by Gemara

Gemara on short mishnahs can go on for pages…

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Gemara on down… rise up”Mishnah Berakhot 1.

  • T: When to recite evening Shema?

  • G. Where is the Tanna standing? Why start with evening? Start with the Morning!

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G. Answer down… rise up”

Tanna stands on scripture: “When you lie down … rise up”

Amora adds: he can also argue from creation: “Evening and morning” (Gen. 1:5)

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Proof-text down… rise up”

  • Reference to a passage to prove a halakhic opinion.

  • Bible

  • Early Rabbinic discussions outside Mishnah

    • Tosefta

    • Midrash

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Amora: down… rise up”

  • Troubled by lack of concern for proof by the Tanna.

  • Assumes Tanna MUST have had a biblical reason for his opinion, so Amora fills the need.

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Goal of Talmud: down… rise up”

  • Mishnah and Written Torah MUST be shown to be inter-related.

  • Show Mishnah to be consistent.

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Problem down… rise up”

  • Mishnah puts:

    Evening first in 1.1.

    Morning first in 1.4.

    Amora in Gemara first proved 1.1 based on Torah, now 1.4 disregards the principle!

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Solution: down… rise up”

  • Simple, but must be made clear:

  • Tanna spoke of evening then morning, but continued to talk of morning since he was on the subject… Then returned to the evening

  • “CHIASTIC” structure.

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G. Question: down… rise up”When is it evening?

  • Tanna mentioned the offerings?

  • Why?

  • Amora assumes that Tanna knew: evening was when the time the stars come out.

  • Answer: to teach something else: the time of the priests ate the offerings.

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Digression: down… rise up”

  • Ritual impurity

  • Does the coming of evening remove some impurity?

  • Yes

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Back to the point… down… rise up”

  • Mishnah refers to offerings

  • A baraita refers to a poor mans evening meal.

  • Solution: both events were simultaneous.