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Chapter 35 Section 4 Changes in Central and Eastern Europe. Changes in the Soviet Union lead to changes throughout Central and Eastern Europe Do Now: What caused the downfall of the Soviet Union?. End of Cold War.
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Chapter 35 Section 4Changes in Central and Eastern Europe Changes in the Soviet Union lead to changes throughout Central and Eastern Europe Do Now: What caused the downfall of the Soviet Union?
End of Cold War • Polish leader Lech Walesa organized Solidarity (independent trade union), elected 1st non-communist government in Eastern Europe. • Fall of the Berlin Wall (1989), Helmut Kohl led to the reunification of Germany in 1990.
Collapse of the Soviet Union (1991) • Attempted coup to overthrow Gorbachev failed in 1991. • Communist support for coup forced Gorbachev to recognized independence of several satellites. • Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine formed Commonwealth of Independent States in December 1991. • Soviet Union now fully broken apart, Gorbachev resigned at the end of 1991, COLD WAR FINISHED. • Yeltsin replaced Gorbachev, said to move too fast. • Putin took power in 1999.
The Rise of Solidarity Workers strike to win recognition of Solidarity- Polish labor union Lech Walesa- leader of the union- becomes national hero Solidarity Defeats Communists Communist government banned solidarity but can not solve economic problems In 1988, workers rebel to force recognition of Solidarity Elections in 1989 and 1990 make Walesa president of Poland Poland Reforms
Votes out Walesa Walesa tries to build a free market economy quickly Though some progress made, many Poles unhappy Walesa votes out Poland under Kwasniewski Alexander Kwasniewski was elected President in 1995 Brings Poland into NATO Tries to build a strong market economy Poland Reforms continued
Hungarian Communists Disband • In 1990, voters elect non-Communist government in Hungary • Democracy thrives • Hungary joins NATO in 1999
Germany Reunifies • East Germany’s leaders resists reforms as in Poland and Hungary • Thousands of East Germans try to escape through Hungary to Austria • East Germany closes its borders which sparks massive protests • In late 1989, new East German leader opens Berlin Wall • By end of year, communist government there collapses
Germany’s Challenges • Reunification- merging of two Germanys- achieved in 1990 • East Germany in poor shape, needs rebuilding • This costly effort forces German leader Helmut Kohl to raise taxes • In 1998, Kohl voted out of office • New leader-Gerhard Schroeder- has difficulty reviving economy • Angela Merkel elected chancellor in 2006; economy begins to stabilize
Czech Reforms In 1989 large crowds protest in Prague, demand democracy Harsh government cracks down- more protests By 1989, Communists gone Vaclav Havel elected President Czech breaks up Economic reforms hurt people of eastern part- Slovakia In 1993, Czechoslovakia splits into two separate countries Both economies grow Slow in Czech Republic Faster in Slovakia In 2004 Slovakia elected Ivan Gasparovic president and join NATO and EU Democracy Spreads in Czechoslovakia
Overthrow in Romania A Popular Uprising • In 1989, Romania leader has army shoot protesters • This action prompts major revolt and collapse of communist rule • Dictator Nicolae Ceausescu and wife executed Christmas Day 1989
Romanian Economy • Corruption and crime prevalent through 1990s • Economy lags • Much of economy still owned by government, not in private hands • Government begins moving towards market economy
Breakup of Yugoslavia • Yugoslavia has 8 ethnic groups in a federation of 6 republics • Milosevic, Serbian leader, tries to impose control over the whole country • Slovenia and Croatia fight off Serbian army, win independence • In 1992, Bosnia-Herzegovina declares independence; war breaks out • Serbs forces participate in ethnic cleansing- getting rid of Bosnian Muslims • In 1995, UN, US establish peace setting up multiethnic government
Rebellion in Kosovo • In 1998 fighting starts in Kosovo, Serb province of ethnic Albanians • Serbian army invades to put down Albanian rebel with harsh force • In 1999, NATO bombs Serbia • Forces Serbia to withdraw
Region faces challenges • Serbia has a new leader • Milosevic faces war crime trials • Montenegro declared independent in 2006 • Serbia accepted peacefully