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The Rise of Austria, Prussia, and Russia and the Changing Power Structure in Europe in the 17 th and 18 th Centuries. Political Changes in Eastern Europe. Three aging empires: gave way to new empires of Austria Prussia and Russia

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The Rise of Austria, Prussia, and Russia and the Changing Power Structure in Europe in the 17th and 18th Centuries.

political changes in eastern europe
Political Changes in Eastern Europe
  • Three aging empires: gave way to new empires of Austria Prussia and Russia
  • Holy Roman Empire: religious divisions and war in 16th and 17th century
  • Ottoman Empire: could not maintain possessions in E. Europe and Balkans
  • Poland: liberum veto – voting in Polish parliament had to be unanimous (= weak gov’t)
the austrian hapsburgs
The Austrian Hapsburgs
  • Multinational empire: Austrian, Hungarian, & Bohemian kingdoms
  • Cosmopolitan aristocracy: serfdom
  • Leopold I (1658-1705),: successfully repelled Turks
  • Turkish threat: relatively religiously tolerant empire
the austrian hapsburgs1
The Austrian Hapsburgs
  • Charles VI
    • Pragmatic Sanction (1713) issued by Charles VI: Habsburg territories indivisible; only Habsburgs could rule (daughter Maria Theresa)
    • War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748) – (King George’s War – 1744-1748)
    • Prussia, France, Bavaria & Spain vs. Austria and Russia
    • Prussia tool Silesia from Austria; Prussia now most powerful German state: “Great Power”
    • Treaty of Aix-laChapelle (1748): legitimized Frederick the Great’s conquest.
the austrian hapsburgs2
The Austrian Hapsburgs
  • Maria Theresa (r. 1740-1780): Wars of 1740s led to internal consolidation
  • Reduced serfdom (more than any other e. European ruler except her son Joseph II)
the austrian hapsburgs3
The Austrian Hapsburgs
  • Joseph II (1765-1790) – greatest of the Enlightened despots (“greatest good for greatest number”)
    • Abolished serfdom in 1781, freedom of press, freedom of religion & civic rights, more equitable justice system, made German official language (to assimilate minorities), increased control over Catholic education, expanded state schools, left empire in economic and political turmoil: Leopold I rescind many laws (e.g., serfdom)
hohenzollerns in prussia
Hohenzollerns in Prussia
  • Frederick William, The Great Elector (r.1640-1688)
    • Rule consolidated after 30 Years’ War: military force & taxation
    • Junkers: nobility sided with king for stability; hereditary serfdom in 1653
    • Created most efficient army in Europe
hohenzollerns in prussia1
Hohenzollerns in Prussia
  • Frederick I (r. 1688-1713)
    • (Elector Frederick III) “The Ostentatious” (1688-1713); 1st “King of Prussia”
    • Allied with Habsburgs in War of League of Augsburg and War of Spanish Succession.
hohenzollerns in prussia2
Hohenzollerns in Prussia
  • Frederick William I (r. 1713-1740) “The Soldiers’ King”
    • Established Prussian abolutism
    • “Sparta of the North”: Largely a military state – best army in Europe
    • Junkers became officers caste in army in return for king’s absolutism
hohenzollerns in prussia3
Hohenzollerns in Prussia
  • “Frederick the Great” (Frederick II: 1740-1786) of Prussia
    • At war for first half of his reign
    • Became a reformer during 2nd half of his reign – ruler was the “first servant of the state”
    • Religious freedom, education in schools and universities, codified laws, promoted industry and agriculture, encouraged immigration
    • Social structure remained heavily stratified: serfdom; extended privileges for the nobility, Junkers became heart of military; difficult upward mobility for middle class leadership
peter the great in russia
Peter the Great in Russia
  • Romanov Dynasty (1613-1917)
    • Michael Romanov (1613-1645)
    • Created Russian empire across Asia to the Pacific (largest nation by 1689)
peter the great in russia1
Peter the Great in Russia
  • Peter the Great (1682-1725)
    • 1698, put down revolt by strelski (Moscow Guards)
    • westernization (modernization): mostly for military purposes
    • state-regulated monopolies created; industrial serfdom
    • Table of Ranks: educational training for new civil service (mostly of nobles)
peter the great in russia2
Peter the Great in Russia
  • St. Petersburg begun in 1703 on Baltic; largest city in Northern Europe by his death.
  • “Winter Palace” sought to emulate Versailles.
  • Great Northern War (1700-1721)
  • Charles XII, 18-yr-old Swedish king
  • Battle of Poltava, 1709: Peter defeated Sweden
  • Treaty of Nystad (1721): Peter gained Baltic states “window to the West”
alternatives to absolutism
Alternatives to Absolutism
  • Sweden
    • Nobles use the absence of the king during warfare to reaffirm their power.
  • United Provinces
    • Merchants and landowners in the Estates General held the House of Orange in check.
  • Poland
    • King was elected by nobles, who continued to hold the power.