slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Political Changes in Eastern Europe PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Political Changes in Eastern Europe

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 16

Political Changes in Eastern Europe - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

The Rise of Austria, Prussia, and Russia and the Changing Power Structure in Europe in the 17 th and 18 th Centuries. Political Changes in Eastern Europe. Three aging empires: gave way to new empires of Austria Prussia and Russia

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Political Changes in Eastern Europe' - yardley-hanson

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

The Rise of Austria, Prussia, and Russia and the Changing Power Structure in Europe in the 17th and 18th Centuries.

political changes in eastern europe
Political Changes in Eastern Europe
  • Three aging empires: gave way to new empires of Austria Prussia and Russia
  • Holy Roman Empire: religious divisions and war in 16th and 17th century
  • Ottoman Empire: could not maintain possessions in E. Europe and Balkans
  • Poland: liberum veto – voting in Polish parliament had to be unanimous (= weak gov’t)
the austrian hapsburgs
The Austrian Hapsburgs
  • Multinational empire: Austrian, Hungarian, & Bohemian kingdoms
  • Cosmopolitan aristocracy: serfdom
  • Leopold I (1658-1705),: successfully repelled Turks
  • Turkish threat: relatively religiously tolerant empire
the austrian hapsburgs1
The Austrian Hapsburgs
  • Charles VI
    • Pragmatic Sanction (1713) issued by Charles VI: Habsburg territories indivisible; only Habsburgs could rule (daughter Maria Theresa)
    • War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748) – (King George’s War – 1744-1748)
    • Prussia, France, Bavaria & Spain vs. Austria and Russia
    • Prussia tool Silesia from Austria; Prussia now most powerful German state: “Great Power”
    • Treaty of Aix-laChapelle (1748): legitimized Frederick the Great’s conquest.
the austrian hapsburgs2
The Austrian Hapsburgs
  • Maria Theresa (r. 1740-1780): Wars of 1740s led to internal consolidation
  • Reduced serfdom (more than any other e. European ruler except her son Joseph II)
the austrian hapsburgs3
The Austrian Hapsburgs
  • Joseph II (1765-1790) – greatest of the Enlightened despots (“greatest good for greatest number”)
    • Abolished serfdom in 1781, freedom of press, freedom of religion & civic rights, more equitable justice system, made German official language (to assimilate minorities), increased control over Catholic education, expanded state schools, left empire in economic and political turmoil: Leopold I rescind many laws (e.g., serfdom)
hohenzollerns in prussia
Hohenzollerns in Prussia
  • Frederick William, The Great Elector (r.1640-1688)
    • Rule consolidated after 30 Years’ War: military force & taxation
    • Junkers: nobility sided with king for stability; hereditary serfdom in 1653
    • Created most efficient army in Europe
hohenzollerns in prussia1
Hohenzollerns in Prussia
  • Frederick I (r. 1688-1713)
    • (Elector Frederick III) “The Ostentatious” (1688-1713); 1st “King of Prussia”
    • Allied with Habsburgs in War of League of Augsburg and War of Spanish Succession.
hohenzollerns in prussia2
Hohenzollerns in Prussia
  • Frederick William I (r. 1713-1740) “The Soldiers’ King”
    • Established Prussian abolutism
    • “Sparta of the North”: Largely a military state – best army in Europe
    • Junkers became officers caste in army in return for king’s absolutism
hohenzollerns in prussia3
Hohenzollerns in Prussia
  • “Frederick the Great” (Frederick II: 1740-1786) of Prussia
    • At war for first half of his reign
    • Became a reformer during 2nd half of his reign – ruler was the “first servant of the state”
    • Religious freedom, education in schools and universities, codified laws, promoted industry and agriculture, encouraged immigration
    • Social structure remained heavily stratified: serfdom; extended privileges for the nobility, Junkers became heart of military; difficult upward mobility for middle class leadership
peter the great in russia
Peter the Great in Russia
  • Romanov Dynasty (1613-1917)
    • Michael Romanov (1613-1645)
    • Created Russian empire across Asia to the Pacific (largest nation by 1689)
peter the great in russia1
Peter the Great in Russia
  • Peter the Great (1682-1725)
    • 1698, put down revolt by strelski (Moscow Guards)
    • westernization (modernization): mostly for military purposes
    • state-regulated monopolies created; industrial serfdom
    • Table of Ranks: educational training for new civil service (mostly of nobles)
peter the great in russia2
Peter the Great in Russia
  • St. Petersburg begun in 1703 on Baltic; largest city in Northern Europe by his death.
  • “Winter Palace” sought to emulate Versailles.
  • Great Northern War (1700-1721)
  • Charles XII, 18-yr-old Swedish king
  • Battle of Poltava, 1709: Peter defeated Sweden
  • Treaty of Nystad (1721): Peter gained Baltic states “window to the West”
alternatives to absolutism
Alternatives to Absolutism
  • Sweden
    • Nobles use the absence of the king during warfare to reaffirm their power.
  • United Provinces
    • Merchants and landowners in the Estates General held the House of Orange in check.
  • Poland
    • King was elected by nobles, who continued to hold the power.