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Chapter 3: Designing interactive classes. Objectives. After studying this chapter you should understand the following: the role of responsibilities in the design of an object; the categorization of an object’s responsibilities as knowing responsibilities or doing responsibilities;

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Chapter 3: Designing interactive classes.


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    1. Chapter 3: Designing interactive classes.

    2. Objectives • After studying this chapter you should understand the following: • the role of responsibilities in the design of an object; • the categorization of an object’s responsibilities as knowing responsibilities or doing responsibilities; • the difference between local variables and instance variables; • the structure of a complete program in Java; • the structure of a test system; • the purpose of named constants. NH-Chapter 3

    3. Objectives • Also, you should be able to: • analyze the role a simple object plays in a given problem and list its responsibilities; • use Java to specify the features of an object based on its responsibilities; • use Java to implement a simple class that has been specified; • implement a complete Java program using a simple text-based interface for an object; • implement a simple tester for testing a class implementation; • define named constants. NH-Chapter 3

    4. Designing with objects • Two questions when we design an OO system : • what are the objects? • what features should these objects have? • Our Initial goal: learn to design and implement simple objects. • We will ssume objects are there for the picking. NH-Chapter 3

    5. Designing with objects • Objects are designed to support system functionality. • System specification are distributed as responsibilities to objects identified. NH-Chapter 3

    6. Object responsibilities • Think in terms of • what object must know. • what object must do. NH-Chapter 3

    7. Object responsibilities • Knowing responsibilities include: • knowing properties of the entity object is modeling; • knowing about other objects with which it needs to cooperate. NH-Chapter 3

    8. Object responsibilities • Doing responsibilities include: • computing particular values; • performing actions that modify its state; • creating and initializing other objects; • controlling and coordinating the activities of other objects. NH-Chapter 3

    9. From responsibilities to class features • “Knowing responsibilities” • translate into data the object must maintain or • Translate into queries. • “Doing responsibilities” • translate into commands or • Translate into queries. NH-Chapter 3

    10. Designing a class • To design a class: • determine an object’s responsibilities, • classify them as knowing or doing responsibilities. NH-Chapter 3

    11. Example: Design of Nim game • Game: Players take turns removing sticks from a pile. Each player in turn removes one, two, or three sticks. The player who removes the last stick loses. NH-Chapter 3

    12. Design of Nim game • Two objects for the picking: • Player • Pile of sticks • Pile and Player are part of the model of problem. • Model aspects of game independently of how is presented to a user or how a user interacts with it. NH-Chapter 3

    13. Designing Pile • Pile a very simple object: • keeps track of how many sticks remain. • Pile responsibilities: • know: • number of sticks remaining • do: • reduce number of sticks (remove sticks) NH-Chapter 3

    14. Designing Player • Player takes a turn in the game to remove sticks from Pile. • Player responsibilities: • know: • this Player’s name. • how many sticks this Player removed on his/her most recent turn. • do: • take a turn by removing sticks from the Pile NH-Chapter 3

    15. From knowing responsibilities to queries • Class: Pile • queries:sticks the number of sticks remaining in this Pile, a non-negative integer NH-Chapter 3

    16. From knowing responsibilities to queries • Class: Player • queries: • name : this Player’s name, a String • sticksTaken : number of sticks this Player removed on his/her most recent turn ( 1, 2, or 3). NH-Chapter 3

    17. From doing responsibilities to commands • Class: Pile • commands:remove : reduce number of sticks by specified amount (number) NH-Chapter 3

    18. From doing responsibilities to commands • Class: Player • commands:takeTurn remove 1, 2, or 3 sticks from the specified Pile (pile) NH-Chapter 3

    19. Interaction diagram:Player takes turn NH-Chapter 3

    20. Pile, and Player constructors • How are the Player’s name and the initial number of sticks in the Pile determined? • Set these values when objects are created:Constructors. • Constructors can have parameters: • Player’s name parameter in Player’s constructor. • Initial number of sticks parameter in Pile constructor. NH-Chapter 3

    21. Pile specifications • nimGame • Class Pile public class Pile A pile of sticks for playing simple nim. • Constructors public Pile (int sticks) Create a new Pile, with the specified number of sticks. sticks must be non-negative. NH-Chapter 3

    22. Pile specifications • Queries publicint sticks () Number of sticks remaining in this Pile. • Commands publicvoid remove (int number) Reduce the number of sticks by the specified amount. number must be non-negative and not greater than the number of sticks remaining. NH-Chapter 3

    23. Player specifications • nimGame • Class Player public class Player A player in the game simple nim. • Constructors public Player (String name) Create a new Player with the specified name. NH-Chapter 3

    24. Player specifications • Queries public String name () The name of this Player. publicint sticksTaken () The number of sticks this Player removed on this Player’s most recent turn: 1, 2, or 3. NH-Chapter 3

    25. Player specifications • Commands publicvoid takeTurn (Pile pile) Remove 1, 2, or 3 sticks from the specified Pile. NH-Chapter 3

    26. Implementing the class Pile • Data maintained by Pile is number remaining sticks. • Instance variable sticksLeft is initialized in constructor and value returned by query sticks: privateint sticksLeft; // sticks left in the Pile public Pile (int sticks) { sticksLeft = sticks; } publicint sticks () { return sticksLeft; } NH-Chapter 3

    27. Implementing the class Pile • Command remove is specified with an int parameter number, indicating sticks to be removed: • Executing command reduces instance variable sticksLeft by value client supplies in number. publicvoid remove (int number) {… publicvoid remove (int number) sticksLeft = sticksLeft - number; } NH-Chapter 3

    28. Implementing the class Player • Player needs to know name and number of sticks taken on most recent turn. • Variables should be initialized in the constructor. private String name; // this Player’s name privateint sticksTaken; // sticks taken on this Player’s most recent turn public Player (String name) { this.name = name; this.sticksTaken = 0; } NH-Chapter 3

    29. Implementing the class Player • Queries simply return the values of the instance variables: public String name () { return name; } publicint sticksTaken () { return sticksTaken; } NH-Chapter 3

    30. Invoking a method: acting as client • General form for invoking a command is • General form for invoking a query: objectReference.queryName(arguments) objectReference.commandName(arguments); NH-Chapter 3

    31. Implementing Player’s takeTurn /** * Remove 1, 2, or 3 sticks from the specified Pile. * The Pile must not be empty. */ public void takeTurn (Pile pile) { … • takeTurn method must: • determine how many sticks to take; Give Player the move strategy to take 1 stick. • remove them from the Pile; pile.remove(1); • store the number removed in sticksTaken instance variable. sticksTaken = 1; NH-Chapter 3

    32. Implementing Player’s takeTurn /** * Remove 1, 2, or 3 sticks from the specified Pile. * The Pile must not be empty. */ public void takeTurn (Pile pile) { pile.remove(1); sticksTaken = 1; } NH-Chapter 3

    33. Interaction diagram: Player commands a Pile NH-Chapter 3

    34. Parameters v.s. arguments • Arguments are provided in a method invocation by expressions. Thus we could write something like pile.remove(sticksTaken + 1); or even pile.remove(2*sticksTaken+2); NH-Chapter 3

    35. Parameters v.s. arguments • Arguments must match in number, type and order: • An invocation of move must provide two arguments, an int and a double in that order. publicvoid move (int direction, double distance) { … } object.move(90, 2.5); NH-Chapter 3

    36. Commands and queries • A command invocation is a form of statement. • A query, which produces a value, is an expression. • If myCounter is a Counter object and i an int, i = myCounter.currentCount(); i = myCounter.currentCount()+10; NH-Chapter 3

    37. Example: Maze game • Player must find his/her way through a set of connected rooms to reach some goal. • there will be tricks player must figure out; • creatures of various kinds to be defeated along the way. NH-Chapter 3

    38. Example: Maze game • Objects for the picking: • player, • maze denizens, • rooms. NH-Chapter 3

    39. Designing Explorer • Explorer responsibilities: • know: • his/her name • location in the maze • amount of annoyance done when poking an opponent • amount of annoyance he/she can endure before being defeated. NH-Chapter 3

    40. Designing Explorer • Responsibilities into properties • namename of the Explorer • locationroom in which Explorer is in • strengthmeasure of Explorer’s offensive ability • tolerancemeasure of what it takes to defeat Explorer NH-Chapter 3

    41. Designing Explorer • Type of value for each Explorer’s property: • Name: String • Location: Room • Strength:int • Tolerance:int Explorer String String name Room location Room int strength 10 int tolerance 100 NH-Chapter 3

    42. Designing Explorer • Explorer responsibilities: • do: • change location in the maze (move from room to room) • fight a maze Denizen • commands to to perform these actions. • movechange location • poke poke a Denizen NH-Chapter 3

    43. Designing Explorer • Both commands will have parameters: • movechange location (new location) • pokepoke a Denizen (denizen to poke) NH-Chapter 3

    44. Interaction diagram NH-Chapter 3

    45. A constructor for the class Explorer • Need constructor for creating Explorer instances. • During creation properties must be initialized. • Require values for name, location, strength, and tolerance be provided as argument. • Constructor for Explorer has four parameters: create new Explorer (name, location, strength, tolerance) NH-Chapter 3

    46. Explorer specification • mazeGame • Class Explorer • public class Explorer • A maze game player. • Constructors • public Explorer (String name, Room location, int strength, int tolerance) • Create a new Explorer with specified name, initial location, strength,and tolerance. • Annoyance (hit points) required to defeat this Explorer. NH-Chapter 3

    47. Explorer specification • Queries • public String name () • Name of this Explorer. • public Room location () • Room in which this Explorer is currently located. • publicint strength () • Annoyance (hit points) this Explorer causes when poking an opponent. • publicint tolerance () • Annoyance (hit points) required to defeat this Explorer. NH-Chapter 3

    48. Explorer specification • Commands • publicvoid move (Room newRoom) • Move to the specified Room. • publicvoid takeThat (int hitStrength) • Receive a poke of the specified number of hit points. • publicvoid poke (Denizen opponent) • Poke the specified Denizen. NH-Chapter 3

    49. Implementing class Explorer • Explorer objects have four properties:name, location, strength, and tolerance. • Use instance variables to store these values: private String name; // name private Room location; // current location privateint strength; // current strength (hit points) privateint tolerance; // current tolerance (hit points) • These variables are initialized in the constructor. NH-Chapter 3

    50. Implementing class Explorer • Queries return current values of instance variables. • Example: query location returns value stored in location. public Room location () { return location; } NH-Chapter 3