Feedback Control
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Feedback Control. Control System Terminology. Input – Excitation applied from external source Output - Response obtained from a system Feedback – System output returned to modify input Error - Difference between input and output. Example of Negative Feedback Control System. Air Temp.

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Control system terminology
Control System Terminology

  • Input – Excitation applied from external source

  • Output - Response obtained from a system

  • Feedback – System output returned to modify input

  • Error - Difference between input and output.

Feedback control

Example of Negative Feedback Control System

Air Temp

Heater Control


Temp Wanted

Types of control systems
Types of Control Systems

  • Open-Loop

    • Simple system which performs function without concern for initial conditions or external inputs

    • Must be closely monitored

  • Closed-Loop (feedback)

    • Uses the output of the process to modify the process to produce the desired result

    • Continually adjusts the process

Advantages of closed loop feedback system
Advantages of Closed-Loop Feedback System

  • Increased Accuracy

    • Ability to reproduce output with varied input

  • Reduced Sensitivity to Disturbance

    • Self-correcting minimizes effects of system changes

  • Smoothing and Filtering

    • System induced noise and distortion are reduced

  • Increased Bandwidth

    • Produces satisfactory response to increased range of input changes

Major types of feedback used
Major Types of Feedback Used

  • Position Feedback

    • Used when the output is a linear distance or angular measurement.

  • Rate & Acceleration Feedback

    • Feeds back rate of motion or rate of change of motion (acceleration)

    • Motion smoothing

    • Uses a electrical/mechanical device called an accelerometer

Feedback control

Job Description:

Train the gun turret to the proper firing

position by moving a joy stick left or

right depending on the direction needed.

This must be performed as fast as possible.

Safety Consideration


For your protection,

you will be located inside

a windowless protective

enclosure inside the gun


Building a Gun Fire Control System

Feedback control



Turret Position with Feedback

Old Position


Feedback control



New Position

Old Position

Automatic tracking systems related to feedback
Automatic Tracking Systems (Related to Feedback)

1. Target Tracking Parameters

2. Line-of-Sight(LOS)

3. Tracking Line

Target tracking parameters
Target Tracking Parameters

  • Azimuth

  • Elevation

  • Range

  • Relative Target Velocity

    • Target’s motion with respect to the platform’s motion

Tracking terms
Tracking Terms



Tracking Line



Angle tracking servo systems
Angle-Tracking Servo Systems

  • Five Basic Functions

    • Sense position error magnitude and direction

    • Provide position feedback

    • Provide data smoothing / stabilization

    • Provide velocity feedback

    • Provide a power-driving device

Uses of angle tracking servo systems
Uses of Angle-Tracking Servo Systems

  • Monotrack fire control radars

  • Homing missiles

  • Acoustic homing torpedoes

  • Aviation fire control tracking systems

Methods of tracking
Methods of tracking

  • Conical scan

  • Conical scan on receive only (COSRO)

  • Monopulse

Position error magnitude direction

Basic Principle: Target energy return is strongest

on the axis of the beam, diminishes further from the axis.

Methods of Tracking:

* Sequential Lobing

* Conical Scan


* Monopulse


Position Error Magnitude & Direction

Sequential lobing







* Simplest Method

* Multiple Beams

* Compare Returns

* Relatively Slow

* Still used by some


Antenna looking

left of target

Antenna Pointing

directly at target

Antenna looking

right of target

Return Signals form Two Beams

Sequential Lobing

Conical scanning
Conical Scanning

Lobe Of


Pattern of scanning

* Rotates a beam in a circle producing a cone of energy.

*Rotate the feed horn in a small circle around the axis of the fixed parabolic antenna.


Determining tracking error using conical scan

Locus of Beam Centers

Antenna Axis

Equal Amplitude

Sensor Return Signal






Target Position is in the Center of the Conical Scan (On Antenna Axis)

Determining Tracking Error Using Conical Scan

Determining tracking error using conical scan1

Locus of Beam Centers

Antenna Axis

Varying Amplitude

Sensor Return Signal






Target Position Off the Center of the Antenna Axis

Determining Tracking Error Using Conical Scan

Cosro conical scan on receive only

*Transmits pulses on antenna axis

* Measures strength of return

around axis of the antenna

* Positions antenna based on return


COSROConical Scan on Receive Only


  • Developed to overcome tracking errors involved with conical scanning and sequential lobing

  • Two or more beams transmitted simultaneously and amplitude comparison is mode between returns

    • One reflector but uses two or more feed horns

    • Each simultaneous beam can be identified by tagging it with some type of information such as slight polarization

  • Very complex and expensive!!!!

Providing a stable tracking system
Providing a Stable Tracking System

  • All tracking systems require some stabilization

  • Three classes of tracking system stabilization

    • Unstabilized - Not stabilized in any axis

    • Partially Stabilized - Stabilized on one axis

    • Fully Stabilized - Free of all rotational disturbances

  • Gyroscopes provide the stable reference

Basic gyroscopic principles
Basic Gyroscopic Principles

  • Gyro spins at a very high velocity

    • Spin axis remains aligned with terrestrial meridians

  • Inertia

    • Rigidity - gyro will remain at a fixed orientation in space if no force is applied to it

    • A gimbaled gyro makes a good reference to cancel out platform role, pitch and yaw (ship or aircraft)

Basic gyroscopic principles1
Basic Gyroscopic Principles

  • Precession

    • A gyro’s spin axis has a tendency to turn at right angles to the direction of the force applied to it

    • Torque required to move the gyro is converted into a means of controlling system gain

  • The gyro has three axes

    • spin axis

    • torque axis

    • precession axis

Gyroscopic theory
Gyroscopic Theory


Now put em together
Now, put ‘em together!!!!

  • Range Tracking

  • Angle Tracking

One dead duck…………………..