freshwater discharges into malaysian coastal seas n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Freshwater Discharges Into Malaysian Coastal Seas PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Freshwater Discharges Into Malaysian Coastal Seas

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 18

Freshwater Discharges Into Malaysian Coastal Seas - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 83 Views
  • Uploaded on

Freshwater Discharges Into Malaysian Coastal Seas. S. M. Oyop (1) , Z.Z. Ibrahim (1) and T. Yanagi (2) (1) Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia (2) Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University email: (1) zelina@env.upm.edu.my,

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Freshwater Discharges Into Malaysian Coastal Seas' - bertha


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
freshwater discharges into malaysian coastal seas

Freshwater Discharges Into Malaysian Coastal Seas

S. M. Oyop(1), Z.Z. Ibrahim(1) and T. Yanagi(2)(1) Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia(2) Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu Universityemail: (1) zelina@env.upm.edu.my,

(2) tyanagi@riam.kyushu-u.ac.jp

JSPS MCRP Coastal Marine Science

National Coordinators Meeting

rationale
Rationale
  • The Southeast Asian regional seas have reduced salinity values
  • Freshwater discharges from surrounding landmasses
  • Freshwater discharges bring land-based materials

Pacific Ocean

South China Sea

Andaman Sea

Indian Ocean

Java Sea

JSPS MCRP Coastal Marine Science

National Coordinators Meeting

some questions
Some Questions
  • How quickly do these materials move out into the deep ocean?
  • Or do they stay in the area?
  • Are rivers important nutrient sources?
  • Or is upwelling more important?

JSPS MCRP Coastal Marine Science

National Coordinators Meeting

some flushing estimates for south china sea and malacca straits
Some Flushing Estimates for South China Sea and Malacca Straits
  • South China Sea
    • Flushing time about 40 years
      • Chen and Huang, 1995
    • Top 350 m layer about 2.6 (dry season) to 6.8 (wet season) years
      • Chen et al (2001)
  • Malacca Strait
    • Low velocities; low salinities; ... low flushing?
      • Hii et al 2006

JSPS MCRP Coastal Marine Science

National Coordinators Meeting

flushing definitions and method
FlushingDefinitions and Method
  • Turnover Time

= Sea Volume/Flux

  • Tidal Prism Method

= Sea Volume/Tidal Volume per Day

  • Residence Time

= (Concentration x Volume)/Flux

JSPS MCRP Coastal Marine Science

National Coordinators Meeting

data sources
Data Sources

JSPS MCRP Coastal Marine Science

National Coordinators Meeting

1 volume of the malacca strait

Surface Area=202,422.4 km2

Total Volume=45525.1 km3

1. Volume of the Malacca Strait

JSPS MCRP Coastal Marine Science

National Coordinators Meeting

2 annual rainfall runoff evaporation
2. Annual Rainfall, Runoff, Evaporation
  • Rainfall

= land rainfall x 0.7 x area

= 334.5 km3

  • Runoff

= Peninsular Malaysia x 2

= 93.17 km3

  • Evaporation

= 3 mm/day x area

= 216.2 km3

JSPS MCRP Coastal Marine Science

National Coordinators Meeting

a freshwater turnover time
a. Freshwater Turnover Time
  • Turnover Time = Volume/flux

JSPS MCRP Coastal Marine Science

National Coordinators Meeting

b tidal prism volume
b. Tidal Prism Volume
  • Tidal prism per tide (semi-diurnal)

= surface area x tide height difference

= surface area x 2 m

= 404.84 km3

  • How much of the water returns on the tide?
    • % of return flow

JSPS MCRP Coastal Marine Science

National Coordinators Meeting

tidal flushing
Tidal Flushing
  • Tidal prism

= volume/(1-return flow)(tidal volume per day)

  • Assumming % return flow

JSPS MCRP Coastal Marine Science

National Coordinators Meeting

but there is return flow

280 days

But there is return flow ...

JSPS MCRP Coastal Marine Science

National Coordinators Meeting

c residence time of freshwater
c. Residence Time of Freshwater
  • Residence Time

= Mean Concentration in Strait

× Strait Volume / Input per year

JSPS MCRP Coastal Marine Science

National Coordinators Meeting

3 salinity distribution
3. Salinity Distribution

3. Salinity Variation with Depth

JSPS MCRP Coastal Marine Science

National Coordinators Meeting

volume of the upper layer 0 200 m
Volume of the Upper Layer (0 - 200 m)

Volume of 0-200 m = 8298.5 km3

Shallow water volume is

18% of total volume

Surface Area=202,422.4 km2

Total Volume=45525.1 km3

JSPS MCRP Coastal Marine Science

National Coordinators Meeting

residence time in the upper 200 m layer
Residence Time in the Upper 200 m Layer
  • We ignore water volume deeper than 200 m

JSPS MCRP Coastal Marine Science

National Coordinators Meeting

summary
Summary

JSPS MCRP Coastal Marine Science

National Coordinators Meeting

some other considerations

North

South

Some Other Considerations ...
  • Seasonal variations
  • Spatial variations

Langat

JSPS MCRP Coastal Marine Science

National Coordinators Meeting