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QUIZ pp. 651-656. Octavia Hill. QUIZ ANSWERS. POPULATION GROWTH. Dramatic pop growth between 1850-1910 1850 = 270 million 1910 = 460 million Cause of pop incr. 1850-1880 = rising birthrate 1880-1910 = decline in death rates Causes of the decline in death rate Medical discoveries

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quiz pp 651 656
QUIZ pp. 651-656

Octavia Hill

population growth
POPULATION GROWTH
  • Dramatic pop growth between 1850-1910

1850 = 270 million

1910 = 460 million

  • Cause of pop incr.
  • 1850-1880 = rising birthrate
  • 1880-1910 = decline in death rates
  • Causes of the decline in death rate
  • Medical discoveries
  • Improved urban environment
  • Improved nutrition
emigration
EMIGRATION
  • Poor people moved around from rural to industrialized areas
  • Emigration within Europe
  • After 1900  massive emigration from southern and eastern Europe to N. America
  • 1846-1932  60 million left to go to America
transformation of the urban environment
TRANSFORMATION OF THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT
  • Causes of urbanization
  • Industrialization
  • Pop growth

Why did cities grow?

  • Migration from rural to urban
  • Economic necessity
  • Jobs in the cities
  • Cities become more attractive  better health and living conditions
improving living conditions
IMPROVING LIVING CONDITIONS
  • Urban reformers in the 1840’s  Edwin Chadwick
  • Sanitary reforms
  • Boards of health created  monitor and enforce health and living conditions
  • Medical officers and building inspectors
  • Building codes and zoning laws
  • Clean water

1. dams and reservoirs to store water

2. aqueducts and pipes to carry water to cities

  • Sewer systems
housing needs
HOUSING NEEDS
  • Need for better housing became a reform effort in the 19th century
  • Good housing =

1. stable family life

2. stable society

OCTAVIA HILL = British housing reformer

1. rehab old housing

2. constructed new housing

THE GARDEN CITY MOVEMENT = construction of new towns separated by open country

redesigning the cities
REDESIGNING THE CITIES
  • Tearing down of old defensive city walls
  • Parks and boulevards
  • The Ringstrasse in Vienna
  • Old working class slums in city centers torn out
  • New town halls, govt buildings, stores, museums, cafes, and theaters for middle class
  • Cities expand and spread out
  • Streetcars and commuter trains
  • Development of the suburbs